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Health Research Methods, Models, Tools,and Databases
- Virus Methods
(EPA Manual of Methods for Virology) The manual (EPA 600-4-84-013) describes in detail procedures for detecting viruses in environmental samples. Revised and new chapters include:
- Chapter 12. Identification of Enteroviruses
- Chapter 13. Data Analysis and Experimental Design (not yet available in PDF format)
- Chapter 14. Concentration and Processing of Waterborne Viruses by Positive Charge 1MDS Cartridge Filters and Organic Flocculation
- Chapter 15. Total Culturable Virus Quantal Assay
- Chapter 16. Procedures for Detecting Coliphages
- Acute-to-Chronic Estimation (ACE)
ACE with Time-Concentration-Effect Models software allows prediction of chronic toxicity from acute toxicity datasets. ACE uses linear regression and accelerated life testing to predict no-effect and low-effect concentrations for chronic mortality.
- Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model
CMAQ is an air quality model and software suite designed to model multiple pollutants at multiple scales. CMAQ allows regulatory agencies and state governments to evaluate the impact of air quality management decisions, and gives scientists the ability to probe, simulate, and understand chemical and physical interactions in the atmosphere.
- Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM)
Dietary models can be used for identifying the importance of diet relative to other exposure pathways and indicating the potential for high exposure of certain populations. Existing consumption and contaminant residue databases, normally developed for purposes such as nutrition and regulatory monitoring, contain information to characterize dietary intake of environmental chemicals. A model and database system, termed the Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM), correlates extant food information in a format for estimating dietary exposure.
- Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS)
EXAMS is a modeling system that supports development of aquatic ecosystem models for rapid evaluation of the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals like pesticides, industrial materials, and leachates from disposal sites. The system is able to generate and summarize data critical for ecological risk assessments. Much of the data required for EXAMS to function has been collected historically. This allows data needs to be met for a certain projects without intensive field sampling.
- Exposure Related Dose Estimating Model (ERDEM)
ERDEM is a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model with a graphical user interface. Such a mathematical model was needed to make reliable estimates of the chemical dose to organs of animals or humans because of uncertainties of making route-to route, low-to-high exposure, and species-to-species extrapolations when there are exposures to one, or to multiple chemicals.
- Framework for Risk Analysis of Multi-Media Environmental Systems (FRAMES)
FRAMES is a software-based modeling system that takes collections of models and modeling tools and applies them to real world problems. FRAMES facilitates communication between models, supporting the passage of data that helps simulate complex environmental processes. The tool has been used in EPA assessments in support of the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule, which establishes contaminant concentration levels in industrial waste streams that are considered safe for disposal.
- Fused Air Quality Surfaces using Downscaling
Based on statistical modeling research in the development of fused space-time predictive surfaces for air quality, this model provides access to the most recent daily O3 and PM2.5 surfaces. As new and improved statistical models become available, we plan to continually update these surfaces.
- Fused Discrete Air Quality Surfaces
This model provides access to discrete, daily O3 and PM2.5 predictive surfaces. Here, a space-time hierachical Bayesian model is used to fuse daily ozone (8-hr maximum) monitoring data from the National Air Monitoring Stations/State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS/SLAMS) with gridded output from the Models-3/Community Multi-Scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ).
- Physiological and Anatomical Visual Analytics 1.0 (PAVA v1.0)
PAVA v1.0 generates and animates dosimetry (chemical or biological time-course) data on a human anatomy. PAVA v1.0 requires, as input, the output of a variety of physiologically-annotated data sources, such as experimental (epidemiological, whole-body auto-radiography, tissue-specific protein expression) or modeling-based time-course data (PBPK model output).
- Stochastic Human Exposure & Dose Simulation Multimedia Model v 3 (SHEDS-Multimedia v3)
SHEDS-Multimedia v 3 is a physically-based, probabilistic exposure model for residential exposure scenarios. The model estimates distributions of exposures in human populations and uncertainties in the estimates through a two-stage Monte Carlo approach. Running the application requires the SAS software; it has an optional graphical user interface (GUI). A simple dose estimating model is included in the model, but the exposure results can also be output and used in other dose estimation models such as ERDEM.
- Children's Exposure Factors Handbook - 2011 edition
The Exposure Factors Handbook summarizes data on drinking water consumption, inhalation rates, and other factors that influence subject exposure to environmental contaminants. Recommended values are for the general population and also for various segments of the population who may have characteristics different from the general population. EPA has tried to include full discussions of the issues that assessors should consider in deciding how to use these data and recommendations.
Research question: What are the human behaviors and characteristics that influence exposure to environmental contaminants? What is the variability of those behaviors and characteristics with regard to specific life stages?
- Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST)
C-FERST is a community mapping, information access, and assessment tool designed to assess risks and assist in decision making within communities
Research question: How can I prioritize my/a community's environmental exposures and risks, and learn about potential solutions to inform environmental public health decision-making?
- Eco-Health Relationship Browser
The Eco-Health Relationship Browser illustrates the linkages between human health and ecosystem services—benefits supplied by Nature. This interactive tool provides information about our nation's ecosystems, the services they provide, and how those services, or their degradation and loss, may affect people.
Research question: What goods or services does a certain ecosystem provide and how do those goods and services affect human health and well-being?
- Most Probable Number (MPN) Software Program
MPN calculates the most probable number and confidence limits values. The MPN Calculator integrates into a single file and replaces the old DOS-based MPN.exe and MPNV.exe programs. Use of the latter was required by Section VIII of the ICR Microbial Laboratory Manual.
- Multimedia Contaminant Fate, Transport, and Exposure Model (MMSOILS)
MMSOILS estimates the human exposure and health risk associated with releases of contamination from hazardous waste sites. The methodology consists of a multimedia model that addresses the transport of a chemical in groundwater, surface water, soil erosion, the atmosphere, and accumulation in the food chain. The risk associated with the total exposure dose is calculated based on chemical-specific toxicity data.
- Supercomputer for Model Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation (SuperMUSE)
SuperMUSE enhances quality assurance in environmental models and applications. With SuperMUSE, EPA can now better investigate new and existing uncertainty analysis (UA) and sensitivity analysis (SA) methods. EPA can also more easily achieve UA/SA of complex, Windows-based environmental models, allowing scientists to conduct analyses that have, to date, been impractical to consider.
- Tribal-Focused Environmental Risk and Sustainability Tool (T-FERST)
T-FERST is a community mapping, information access, and assessment tool designed to assess risk and assist in decision making within tribal communities.
Research question: How can I prioritize my/a tribe's environmental exposures and risks, and learn about potential solutions to inform environmental public health decision-making?
- Virtual Beach (VB)
VB is a software suite that uses data on beach location, local hydrology, land use, wave height, and weather to create models that can predict bacteria and other waterborne pathogen outbreaks at saltwater and freshwater beaches before they happen.
Research question: Where do I need to issue same-day beach closures or health advisories to protect the health of swimmers and the surrounding community?
- Air Quality Data for the CDC National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network
EPA's Exposure Research scientists are collaborating with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on a CDC initiative to build a National Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) network. Working with state, local and federal air pollution and health agencies, the EPHT program is facilitating the collection, integration, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data from environmental hazard monitoring, and from human exposure and health effects surveillance. These data provide scientific information to develop surveillance indicators, and to investigate possible relationships between environmental exposures, chronic disease, and other diseases, that can lead to interventions to reduce the burden of theses illnesses. An important part of the initiative is air quality modeling estimates and air quality monitoring data, combined through Bayesian modeling that can be linked with health outcome data.
- Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD)
CHAD contains data obtained from pre-existing human activity studies that were collected at city, state, and national levels. CHAD is intended to be an input file for exposure/intake dose modeling and/or statistical analysis. CHAD is a master database providing access to other human activity databases using a consistent format.
- Environmental Geophysics
The Environmental Geophysics database contains information on geophysical methods, references to geophysical citations, and a glossary of geophysical terms related to environmental applications.
- ExpoCast Database
ExpoCast consolidates observational human exposure data and link to ToxRef DB, ACToR and ToxCast DB to help make high throughput exposure predictions.
Research question: How can knowledge of exposures inform risk-based decision making?
- Human Exposure Database System (HEDS)
HEDS is an integrated database system that contains chemical measurements, questionnaire responses, documents, and other information related to EPA research studies of the exposure of people to environmental contaminants.
- PPCP (Reference Databases)
This is a database of published literature relevant to the issues surrounding PPCPs as environmental contaminants.