Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award Recipients by Technology

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Index of Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award winners by technology.

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DISCLAIMER: The short descriptions provided in this section were derived by EPA from the winning entries received for the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards and other public information. They are not officially endorsed by EPA, nor does EPA endorse any of the products mentioned in them. Claims made in these descriptions have not been verified by EPA. Each description represents only one aspect of the information in an entry and, as such, is intended merely to point users of this Web site to a summary of the winning entry.

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Biotechnology, including use of biological processes or microorganisms: 9 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology in Relation to the Topic Area
2008 Dow AgroSciences LLC Spinetoram, a new spinosyn insecticide that is more effective than a related pesticide, spinosad, which was a 1999 Challenge award winner, but maintains spinosad's low toxicity to mammals and other non-target species (summary)
2004 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Plant cell fermentation used to make paclitaxel, the active ingredient in the drug Taxol® (summary)
2004 Jeneil Biosurfactant Company Rhamnolipid biosurfactants made by soil bacteria (summary)
2003 AgraQuest, Inc. (now Bayer CropScience) Serenade®, a biofungicide, made by a naturally occurring bacterium (summary)
2002 Cargill Dow LLC (now NatureWorks LLC) Fermentation: the first step in the manufacturing process for NatureWorksTM polylactic acid (PLA) (summary)
2001 EDEN Bioscience Corporation Fermentation produces Messenger® (nontoxic, naturally occurring harpin proteins), which stimulates plant defenses against disease and pests (summary)
1999 Dow AgroSciences LLC Spinosad, a natural product for control of chewing insects that has a favorable environmental profile; contained in Tracer NaturalyteTM, SpinTorTM, Success™, PreciseTM, and ConserveTM (summary)
1999 Lilly Research Laboratories A yeast performs a stereospecific reduction to make a pharmaceutical active ingredient (summary)
1996 Professor Mark Holtzapple, Texas A&M University Rumen microorganisms used to convert waste biomass to animal feed, chemicals, and fuels (summary)

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Biotechnology > Genetic Engineering: 11 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology in Relation to the Topic Area
2012 Codexis, Inc.; Professor Yi Tang, University of California, Los Angeles LovD, an acyltransferase from E. coli engineered by directed evolution, now performs regioselective acylation in the sysnthesis of the drug simvastatin (summary)
2011 BioAmber, Inc. Genetically engineered E. coli strain licensed from the Department of Energy produces succinic acid (summary)
2011 Genomatica Genetically engineered E. coli strain produces 1,4-butanediol directly by fermentation of sugars (summary)
2010 Professor James C. Liao, Easel Biotechnologies, LLC and University of California, Los Angeles Butanol, isobutanol, and other C3-8 alcohols made by genetically engineered microorganisms including photosynthetic microorganisms (summary)
2010 LS9, Inc. Engineered established industrial microorganisms convert fermentable sugar selectively to alkanes, olefins, fatty alcohols, or fatty esters; includes Ultra CleanTM Diesel fuel (summary)
2010 Merck & Co., Inc.;
Codexis, Inc.
Directed evolution used to create an exclusively R-selective transaminase with 25,000-fold improvement in biocatalytic activity for sitagliptin synthesis (summary)
2006 Codexis, Inc. Recombination-based directed evolution of three enzymes used to produce the key chiral intermediate for Lipitor® (summary)
2005 Metabolix, Inc. Bioplastics (polyhydroxyalkanoates) made by genetically engineered organisms (summary)
2003 DuPont Sorona®, a new fabric, uses a feedstock (1,3-propanediol) produced by fermentation with a genetically engineered microorganism (summary)
2001 Novozymes North America, Inc. BioPreparationTM of cotton textiles uses a cloned bacterial pectate lyase to remove natural waxes and oils prior to dyeing and finishing (summary)
1998 Dr. Karen M. Draths and Professor John W. Frost, Michigan State University Genetically manipulated microbes ferment renewable feedstocks to synthesize chemicals of major industrial importance: adipic acid and catechol (summary)

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Biotechnology > Use of Isolated Enzymes: 10 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology in Relation to the Topic Area
2012 Buckman International, Inc. New cellulase enzymes and combinations of enzymes derived from natural sources increase the number of "fibrils" that bind wood fibers together, resulting in stronger paper (summary)
2012 Codexis, Inc.; Professor Yi Tang, University of California, Los Angeles LovD, an acyltransferase from E. coli engineered by directed evolution, now performs regioselective acylation in the sysnthesis of the drug simvastatin (summary)
2010 Merck & Co., Inc.;
Codexis, Inc.
An exclusively R-selective transaminase developed by directed evolution converts a ketone to a chiral amine, producing sitagliptin, the active ingredient in JanuviaTM (summary)
2009 Eastman Chemical Company Immobilized enzymes, such as lipase, used to make a variety of esters for cosmetics and personal care products (summary)
2006 Codexis, Inc. Three enzymes evolved by recombination-based directed evolution used to produce the key chiral intermediate for Lipitor® (summary)
2005 Archer Daniels Midland Company; Novoyzmes Lipozyme®, an immobilized enzyme, interesterifies triglycerides to produce low trans fats and oils for foods (summary)
2004 Buckman Laboratories International, Inc. Optimize®, an esterase, hydrolyzes polyvinyl acetate and other major sticky contaminants of recycled paper to improve recycling (summary)
2003 Professor Richard A. Gross, Polytechnic University Lipases from yeast polymerize chemically and thermally sensitive molecules (summary)
2001 Novozymes North America, Inc. Bacterial pectate lyase removes natural waxes and oils from cotton textiles prior to dyeing and finishing: BioPreparationTM of cotton (summary)
2000 Professor Chi-Huey Wong, The Scripps Research Institute Enzymes used for large-scale organic syntheses that were impossible or impractical by nonenzymatic methods (summary)

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Polymers: 23 technologies (2 subcategories)

Polymers > Chemical Polymers: 18 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology in Relation to the Topic Area
2013 The Dow Chemical Company Polymer-titanium dioxide (TiO2) composites reduce the amount of TiO2 required in paint to achieve coverage and opacity (summary)
2012 Professor Geoffrey W. Coates, Cornell University Synthesis of polycarbonates and other polymers from carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) is enabled by a new family of catalysts (summary)
2012 Cytec Industries Inc. A polymer containing silane functional groups is the active ingredient in MAX HTTM sodalite scale inhibitor for use in Bayer process plants, which convert bauxite to alumina (summary)
2012 Professor Robert M. Waymouth, Stanford University; Dr. James L. Hedrick, IBM Almaden Research Center Synthesis of a wide variety of polymers using highly active, environmentally benign, organic catalysts to replace metal catalysts and their negative human health and environmental impacts (summary)
2011 Kraton Performance Polymers, Inc. Sulfonated pentablock copolymers, a new family of ionomeric polymers, form NEXARTM polymer membranes for applications requiring high water flux (summary)
2011 The Sherwin-Williams Company Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) soda bottle plastic and acrylic monomers are among the feedstocks for water-based alkyd–acrylic dispersions in paints and coatings (summary)
2009 Professor Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Carnegie Mellon University Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with a copper catalyst and environmentally friendly reducing agents used to make polymers with precisely controlled structures (summary)
2009 The Procter & Gamble Company;
Cook Composites & Polymers Company (Chempol® technology acquired by Arkema Coating Resins)
Chempol® MPS alkyd polymer resins used in conjunction with Sefose® sucrose esters to reformulate conventional oil-based paints (summary)
2007 Cargill, Incorporated Polyurethane foams can now be made with biobased BiOH™ polyols instead of petroleum-based polyols (summary)
2006 S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc. GreenlistTM Process guided the replacement of polyvinylidene chloride with polyethylene in Saran Wrap® (summary)
2005 BASF Corporation Primer for automotive refinishing; applied as a urethane acrylate oligomer that crosslinks by UV light into the cured film (summary)
2003 Shaw Industries, Inc. Polyolefin thermoplastic carpet tile backing combines with nylon 6 fibers to produce a carpet tile, EcoWorxTM, that is readily recyclable following separation of the backing and fibers (summary)
2002 Professor Eric J. Beckman, University of Pittsburgh Polydimethyl siloxane polymers, poly(ether carbonates), and acetate-functional polyethers as non-fluorous materials to increase the solubility of compounds of interest in supercritical CO2 (summary)
2000 Bayer Corporation; Bayer AG Two-component waterborne polyurethane coatings greatly reduce VOC solvents (summary)
1999 Nalco Company High-molecular-weight, water-soluble polymers in ammonium sulfate solution to replace water-in-oil polymer emulsions in water treatment applications (summary)
1998 PYROCOOL Technologies, Inc. Highly biodegradable, polymeric nonionic surfactants, anionic surfactants, and amphoteric surfactants as active ingredients in PYROCOOL Fire Extinguishing Foam (summary)
1997 Professor Joseph M. DeSimone, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) and North Carolina State University (NCSU) Polymeric surfactants originally developed to allow heterogeneous polymerizations in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) greatly increase the solubility of many other substances in scCO2 (summary)
1996 The Dow Chemical Company Carbon dioxide replaces chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as the blowing agent to make polystyrene foam (summary)

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Polymers > Biopolymers, excluding the use of isolated enzymes: 13 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology in Relation to the Topic Area
2013 Professor Richard P. Wool, University of Delaware Modified plant oils can be polymerized to make adhesives, foams, composite resins, and elastomers (summary)
2012 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Biobased polymers and engineered plastics made from difunctional, high-performance specialty chemicals that are made from crop oils but combine the benefits of petrochemicals and biobased chemicals (summary)
2011 The Sherwin-Williams Company Fatty acids from soybean oil provide film formation, gloss, flexibility and cure as part of water-based alkyd–acrylic dispersions with very low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (summary)
2008 Battelle Biobased polyesters, polyamides, and polyurethanes resins made from soy oil and protein along with corn carbohydrate are components of toner for photocopying and printing (summary)
2007 Cargill, Incorporated BiOHTM biobased polyols replace petroleum-based polyols to make polyurethane foams (summary)
2007 Professor Kaichang Li, Oregon State University; Columbia Forest Products; and Hercules Incorporated Adhesive derived from soy flour to replace urea-formaldehyde resin for plywood and other wood composites (summary)
2005 Metabolix, Inc. Bioplastics (polyhydroxyalkanoates) made by genetically engineered organisms (summary)
2005 Professor Robin D. Rogers, The University of Alabama Cellulose from virtually any source can be dissolved and processed in ionic liquids to create advanced, cellulose-based materials (summary)
2003 DuPont Sorona®, a polymer of terephthalate and 1,3-propanediol, is a new fabric type; 1,3-propanediol is produced by a genetically engineered organism, starting from cornstarch (summary)
2003 Professor Richard A. Gross, Polytechnic University Polyesters made from chemically and thermally sensitive molecules by yeast lipases (summary)
2002 Cargill Dow LLC (now NatureWorks LLC) NatureWorksTM polylactic acid (PLA), manufactured from cornstarch in three steps (summary)
1999 1999 Biofine, Inc. (now DPS BioMetics) Low-cost waste biomass (cellulose) undergoes dilute acid hydrolysis to levulinic acid, a platform chemical used to make biodegradable polymers and many other important derivatives (summary)
1996 Donlar Corporation (now NanoChem Solutions, Inc.) Thermal polyaspartate polymers made by homopolymerization of aspartic acid (summary)

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Renewable Resources, technologies that use a renewable resource in place of a petroleum-based or depleting resource: 30 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology in Relation to the Topic Area
2013 Cargill, Inc. Vegetable-oil-based insulation fluid improves performance of transformers and reduces carbon footprint (summary)
2013 Professor Richard P. Wool, University of Delaware Modified plant oils and natural fibers are the source for durable composites and other materials that are used in an array of products (summary)
2012 Professor Geoffrey W. Coates, Cornell University Biorenewable substances, including carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), plant oils, and lactic acid, are feedstocks for polymer synthesis using new, highly efficient catalysts (summary)
2012 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Renewable crop oils are broken down with Nobel-prize-winning catalyst technology and are recombined into novel, high-performance, difunctional green chemicals for use as specialty chemicals (summary)
2012 Professor Robert M. Waymouth, Stanford University; Dr. James L. Hedrick, IBM Almaden Research Center Monomers derived from biomass or depolymerized plastic are among the feedstocks for polyesters and other polymers made with environmentally benign organic catalysts (summary)
2011 BioAmber, Inc. Glucose is fermented on a commercial scale by a genetically engineered E. coli strain to make succinic acid, traditionally produced from petroleum (summary)
2011 Genomatica Readily available sugars fermented by a genetically engineered E. coli strain produce 1,4-butanediol, a large-volume chemical usually made from petroleum (summary)
2011 The Sherwin-Williams Company Fatty acids from soybean oil substitute for petroleum- and oil-based raw materials as part of new water-based alkyd–acrylic dispersions with very low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (summary)
2010 Professor James C. Liao, Easel Biotechnologies, LLC and University of California, Los Angeles Carbon dioxide (CO2) or sugars fermented to butanol, isobutanol, and other C3-8 alcohols made by genetically engineered microorganisms including photosynthetic microorganisms (summary)
2010 LS9, Inc. Sugars fermented by engineered microorganisms are converted selectively to alkanes, olefins, fatty alcohols, or fatty esters; includes Ultra CleanTM Diesel fuel (summary)
2009 Eastman Chemical Company Delicate raw materials including some renewable materials such as unsaturated fatty acids are among the substrates for a gentle enzymatic process to make esters (summary)
2009 The Procter & Gamble Company;
Cook Composites & Polymers Company (Chempol® technology acquired by Arkema Coating Resins)
Sefose® oils—sucrose esterified with fatty acids—replace volatile organic solvents in alkyd paint formulations; new Chempol® MPS alkyd resins have higher renewable content than traditional alkyd resins (summary)
2009 Virent Energy Systems, Inc. Sugar, starch, or cellulose from plants used in the BioForming® process to make gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel (summary)
2008 Battelle Soy oil and protein as well as corn carbohydrate are used to make polyesters, polyamides, and polyurethanes for toner used in photocopying and printing (summary)
2008 Dow AgroSciences LLC Spinosyns J and L, naturally occurring fermentation products, are the starting materials for a green chemical synthesis of spinetoram, a new insecticide (summary)
2007 Cargill, Incorporated BiOHTM polyols made from epoxidized vegetable oils replace petroleum-based polyols in polyurethane foams (summary)
2007 Professor Kaichang Li, Oregon State University; Columbia Forest Products; and Hercules Incorporated Soy-based adhesive replaces urea-formaldehyde resin for plywood and other wood composites (summary)
2006 Professor Galen Suppes, University of Missouri-Columbia Glycerin, a waste coproduct of biodiesel production, is converted to propylene glycol or hydroxyacetone (summary)
2006 Arkon Consultants; NuPro Technologies, Inc. (now Eastman Kodak) Biobased solvents and solvent recovery system for flexographic printing (summary)
2005 Archer Daniels Midland Company Propylene glycol monoesters of sunflower oil fatty acids (Archer RCTM) act as a reactive coalescent to replace VOCs in latex paints (summary)
2005 Metabolix, Inc. Sugar and vegetable oils used by genetically engineered organisms to produce bioplastics (polyhydroxyalkanoates) (summary)
2005 Professor Robin D. Rogers, The University of Alabama Cellulose from virtually any source can be dissolved and processed in ionic liquids to create advanced, cellulose-based materials (summary)
2004 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Fermentation using plant cells produces paclitaxel, the active ingredient in the drug Taxol®, to replace bark, twigs, and leaves of slow-growing yew trees as the source (summary)
2004 Buckman Laboratories International, Inc Enzymatic fermentation is used to make Optimyze® enzyme technology, which removes stickies from paper before recycling (summary)
2004 Jeneil Biosurfactant Company Fermentation by a soil bacterium makes rhamnolipid biosurfactant, a naturally occurring extracellular glycolipid that can substitute for petroleum-derived surfactants (summary)
2003 DuPont Derives glucose from cornstarch, then converts glucose to 1,3-propanediol by fermentation with a genetically engineered microorganism; uses the 1,3-propanediol to make Sorona®, a new fabric (summary)
2002 Cargill Dow LLC (now NatureWorks LLC) Starting from cornstarch, manufactures NatureWorksTM polylactic acid (PLA) in three steps (summary)
1999 Biofine, Inc. (now DPS BioMetics) Low-cost waste biomass (cellulose) undergoes dilute acid hydrolysis to levulinic acid, a platform chemical used to make many important derivatives (summary)
1998 Argonne National Laboratory Low-cost carbohydrates ferment to produce lactic acid and ethanol, the feedstocks for ethyl lactate ester, a solvent (summary)
1998 Dr. Karen M. Draths and Professor John W. Frost, Michigan State University Renewable feedstocks such as starch, hemicellulose, and cellulose produce glucose, the feedstock used by genetically manipulated microbes to make chemicals of major industrial importance: adipic acid and catechol (summary)
1996 Donlar Corporation (now NanoChem Solutions, Inc.) Aspartic acid, an amino acid, is the feedstock for biodegradable thermal polyaspartic acid, to replace polyacrylic acid (summary)
1996 Professor Mark Holtzapple, Texas A&M University Waste biomass converted by rumen microorganisms into animal feed, chemicals, and fuels (summary)

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Safer Chemical Products: 28 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology
in Relation to the Topic Area
2013 Cargill, Inc. Low-flammability, soy-based dielectric fluid replaces mineral oil, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other halogenated compounds in electric transformers (summary)
2013 Faraday Technology, Inc. Trivalent chromium, Cr(III), can replace carcinogenic, hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in hard chrome electroplating (summary)
2012 Buckman International, Inc. Maximyze® enzyme treatment of wood fibers is less toxic than alternatives and is safer to handle, manufacture, transport, and use than are current chemical treatments (summary)
2011 The Sherwin-Williams Company Low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water-based alkyd–acrylic paints are safer for painters and those who occupy recently painted areas (summary)
2010 Clarke Encapsulating spinosad in a plaster matrix creates a time-release pesticide for aqueous environments, replacing organophosphates and other traditional, toxic pesticides (summary)
2009 The Procter & Gamble Company;
Cook Composites & Polymers Company (Chempol® technology acquired by Arkema Coating Resins)
Sefose® oils made from sucrose and fatty acids are formulated with Chempol® MPS alkyd resins to produce safer alkyd paints (summary)
2008 Dow AgroSciences LLC Spinetoram, a new environmentally favorable insecticide, replaces organophosphate insecticides for use on many crops including pome fruit, stone fruit, and tree nuts (summary)
2008 SiGNa Chemistry, Inc. Alkali metals encapsulated in porous metal oxides retain their high reactivity, but are not dangerous to store or handle (summary)
2007 Professor Kaichang Li, Oregon State University; Columbia Forest Products; and Hercules Incorporated Soy-based adhesive replaces urea-formaldehyde resin for plywood and other wood composites (summary)
2007 NovaSterilis Inc. Carbon dioxide and peroxyacetic acid replace ethylene oxide and gamma radiation used for sterilization of delicate biological materials (summary)
2006 Arkon Consultants; NuPro Technologies, Inc. (now Eastman Kodak Safer solvents and solvent recovery system for flexographic printing (summary)
2006 S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc. GreenlistTM process used to redesign several consumer products including Saran Wrap®, Windex®, and Glade® (summary)
2005 Archer Daniels Midland Company Archer RCTM, a nonvolatile, reactive coalescent (propylene glycol monoesters of sunflower oil fatty acids) to replace VOCs in latex paint (summary)
2004 Engelhard Corporation (now BASF Corporation) RightfitTM azo pigments contain calcium, strontium, or barium, have low potential toxicity, low migration rates, and are made in aqueous medium; traditional pigments contain heavy metals (lead, chromium (VI), and cadmium) and use polychlorinated intermediates and organic solvents (summary)
2004 Jeneil Biosurfactant Company Biodegradable, low toxicity rhamnolipid biosurfactants (glycolipid) substitute for synthetic or petroleum-derived surfactants (summary)
2003 AgraQuest, Inc. (now Bayer CropScience) Serenade® biofungicide, the first nontoxic, broad-spectrum microbial fungicide compatible with both organic and conventional farming (summary)
2003 Shaw Industries, Inc. EcoWorxTM polyolefin thermoplastic carpet tile backing uses low-toxicity feedstocks, contains no PVC or plasticizers, does not emit dioxin or hydrochloric acid products when burned (summary)
2002 Chemical Specialties, Inc. (now Viance) ACQ Preserve®, an alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) wood preservative, replaces chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative (summary)
2002 Professor Eric J. Beckman, University of Pittsburgh Poly(ether-carbonates) and other non-fluorous, biodegradable, highly CO2-soluble materials broaden the applicability of CO2 as a solvent; CO2 poses fewer hazards than do conventional organic solvents (summary)
2001 Bayer Corporation; Bayer AG (technology acquired by LANXESS) Sodium iminodisuccinate, a readily biodegradable chelating agent that is toxicologically and ecotoxicologically benign (summary)
2001 PPG Industries Yttrium as a substitute for lead in cationic electrodeposition coatings (summary)
2000 Dow AgroSciences LLC SentriconTM termite colony elimination system, a reduced-risk pesticide; significantly less hazardous than barrier methods of termite control (summary)
1999 Dow AgroSciences LLC Spinosad, a natural product for control of chewing insects; a reduced-risk pesticide contained in Tracer NaturalyteTM, SpinTorTM, SuccessTM, PreciseTM, and Conserve™ that replaces such pesticides as abamectin, cypermethrin, fipronil, and imidacloprid (summary)
1998 PYROCOOL Technologies, Inc. PYROCOOL fire extinguishing foam, a formulation of highly biodegradable surfactants: less toxic than current alternatives, inherently safer to use, providing far less potential for environmental damage (summary)
1998 Rohm and Haas Company (now Dow Chemical Company) Diacylhydrazides, a new class of insecticides that disrupts molting in target insects, contained in CONFIRMTM, MACH 2TM, and INTREPIDTM; reduced risk pesticides (summary)
1997 Albright & Wilson Americas (now Rhodia) Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS) biocides, a new class of environmentally benign antimicrobial pesticides, replaces chlorinated isothiazolones and other more toxic biocides (summary)
1996 Rohm and Haas Company (now Dow Chemical Company) Sea-NineTM, an environmentally safe marine antifoulant, used on ship hulls to prevent the unwanted growth of plants and animals; replaces tributyltin oxide, which bioaccumulates and is toxic to shellfish (summary)

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Solvents: 22 technologies

Solvents > Carbon Dioxide: 6 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology in Relation to the Topic Area
2007 NovaSterilis Inc. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and a peroxide used for sterilization of delicate biological materials (summary)
2004 Professors Charles A. Eckert and Charles L. Liotta, Georgia Institute of Technology Tunable solvents, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), nearcritical water, and CO2-expanded liquids, couple reactions and separations, replacing organic solvents and minimizing waste (summary)
2002 Professor Eric J. Beckman, University of Pittsburgh Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) becomes a better solvent for compounds of interest when used with polydimethyl siloxane polymers, poly(ether-carbonates), and acetate-functional polyethers, which are non-fluorous materials (summary)
2002 SC Fluids, Inc. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) removes photoresist from semiconductor wafers, replacing hazardous solvents and corrosive chemicals (summary)
1997 Professor Joseph M. DeSimone, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) and North Carolina State University (NCSU) Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) becomes a better solvent for many other substances when used with polymeric surfactants (summary)
1996 The Dow Chemical Company Carbon dioxide replaces chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as the blowing agent to make polystyrene foam (summary)

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    Solvents > Solvent-Free Processes: 7 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology in Relation to the Topic Area
2009 Eastman Chemical Company Solvent-free enzymatic esterifications used to make a wide variety of esters for cosmetics and personal care products (summary)
2009 The Procter & Gamble Company;
Cook Composites & Polymers Company (Chempol® technology acquired by Arkema Coating Resins)
A solventless process esterifies sucrose with fatty acids to make Sefose®, a replacement for volatile organic solvents in alkyd paints and coatings (summary)
2008 Professors Robert E. Maleczka, Jr. and Milton R. Smith, III, Michigan State University Solvent is often not needed for catalytic carbon-hydrogen bond activation/borylation reactions that create boronic ester precursors to many complex molecules (summary)
2007 Headwaters Technology Innovation Solvent-free process to make hydrogen peroxide directly from hydrogen and oxygen using a novel palladium-platinum catalyst (summary)
2002 Cargill Dow LLC (now NatureWorks LLC) Solventless lactide synthesis by continuous distillation, polymerization of polylactic acid (PLA) in the molten state, and recycling of PLA (summary)
2000 RevTech, Inc. No or little solvent or other VOCs in the EnvirogluvTM direct silk screening of inks onto glass, then curing the ink with UV light (summary)
1997 Imation (technology acquired by Eastman Kodak Company) DryViewTM photothermographic technology completely eliminates wet chemistry (developer, fixer, and water) required to develop silver halide photographic film (summary)

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Solvents > Water, excluding fermentations, which are listed elsewhere: 10 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology in Relation to the Topic Area
2011 Professor Bruce H. Lipshutz, University of California, Santa Barbara Water as the bulk medium with added surfactants that form small micelles within which a variety of chemical reactions can occur, replacing organic solvents (summary)
2009 Virent Energy Systems, Inc. BioForming® is a water-based, catalytic method used to make gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel from sugar, starch, or cellulose (summary)
2006 Codexis, Inc. Evolved enzymes used to produce to produce key chiral intermediate for Lipitor® via fermentation (summary)
2004 Engelhard Corporation (now BASF Corporation) RightfitTM organic pigments manufactured in water, eliminating large volumes of organic solvent required to manufacture traditional pigments (summary)
2004 Professors Charles A. Eckert and Charles L. Liotta, Georgia Institute of Technology Tunable solvents, including nearcritical water, couple reactions and separations, replacing organic solvents and minimizing waste (summary)
2001 Professor Chao-Jun Li, Tulane University Water and air replace organic solvents and inert gas in reactions using transition metals as catalysts (summary)
2000 Bayer Corporation; Bayer AG Two-component waterborne polyurethane coatings replace most or all of the VOCs and HAPs (hazardous air pollutants) used in conventional solvent borne polyurethanes (summary)
1999 Nalco Company Aqueous ammonium sulfate solution replaces oil and surfactants in manufacture of water-based liquid dispersion polymers (summary)
1999 Professor Terry Collins, Carnegie Mellon University TAMLTM (tetraamido-macrocyclic ligand) activators work with hydrogen peroxide in water, especially in wood-pulp delignification and laundry applications (summary)
1997 Legacy Systems, Inc. ColdstripTM, an organic removal and wet cleaning technology for the semiconductor, flat panel display, and micromachining industries, uses only water and oxygen as raw materials (summary)

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Solvents > Alternative Solvents: 4 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology in Relation to the Topic Area
2011 Professor Bruce H. Lipshutz, University of California, Santa Barbara Small amounts of surfactants added to water create tiny micelles within which a variety of chemical reactions can occur, replacing organic solvents (summary)
2006 Arkon Consultants; NuPro Technologies, Inc. (now Eastman Kodak) Safer solvents and solvent recovery system for flexographic printing (summary)
2005 Professor Robin D. Rogers, The University of Alabama Ionic liquids replace carbon disulfide to dissolve cellulose and create advanced, cellulose-based materials (summary)
1998 Argonne National Laboratory Ethyl lactate, made via fermentation and a membrane process, replaces traditional organic solvents in many applications (summary)

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Synthetic Processes: 26 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology in Relation to the Topic Area
2013 Life Technologies Corporation One-pot, three-step synthesis for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reagents is much more efficient, eliminates hazardous solvents, and greatly reduces waste (summary)
2011 Professor Bruce H. Lipshutz, University of California, Santa Barbara Common synthetic methods, including the Grubbs, Suzuki, Heck, and Sonogashira reactions, run very efficiently within micelles in water (summary)
2010 The Dow Chemical Company;
BASF
An alternate synthesis of propylene oxide uses hydrogen peroxide, eliminates most waste chemicals, greatly reduces waste, and saves energy (summary)
2009 Eastman Chemical Company A solvent-free biocatalytic process for esters used in cosmetics and personal care products (summary)
2009 Professor Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Carnegie Mellon University Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) improved by a copper catalyst and environmentally friendly reducing agents to make polymers with precisely controlled structures (summary)
2009 Virent Energy Systems, Inc. Catalytic BioForming® process uses sugar, starch, or cellulose to make gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel (summary)
2008 Dow AgroSciences LLC A low-impact, catalytic synthesis for spinetoram biopesticides starts with spinosyns J and L (summary)
2008 Professors Robert E. Maleczka, Jr. and Milton R. Smith, III, Michigan State University Catalytic carbon-hydrogen bond activation/borylation reactions that create boronic esters that are precursors to many complex molecules (summary)
2007 Headwaters Technology Innovation Hydrogen peroxide synthesized directly from hydrogen and oxygen using a novel palladium-platinum catalyst (summary)
2007 Professor Michael J. Krische, University of Texas at Austin Carbon-carbon bond formation reactions in tandem with catalytic hydrogenation synthesize complex molecules, including chiral substances (summary)
2006 Merck & Co., Inc. Asymmetric catalysis of unprotected enamines produces β-amino acids (summary)
2006 Codexis, Inc. Three evolved enzymes produce the key chiral intermediate for Lipitor® (summary)
2006 Professor Galen Suppes, University of Missouri-Columbia Copper chromite catalyst system efficiently converts glycerin to propylene glycol or hydroxyacetone (summary)
2005 Merck & Co., Inc. A convergent synthesis of aprepitant, the active ingredient in Emend®, with half the synthetic steps, almost double the yield, and a reduction of nearly 80 percent in both raw materials and waste (summary)
2004 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Synthesis of paclitaxel, the active ingredient in Taxol®, via plant cell fermentation replacing a semisynthetic synthesis that required twigs and leaves of yew trees (summary)
2004 Professors Charles A. Eckert and Charles L. Liotta, Georgia Institute of Technology Use of tunable solvents, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), nearcritical water, and CO2-expanded liquids, to couple reactions and separations, replacing organic solvents and minimizing waste (summary)
2003 Süd-Chemie Inc. (now a Clariant Group Company) Synthesis of solid oxide catalysts with virtually no wastewater discharge, no nitrate discharge, and little or no NOX emissions (summary)
2002 Pfizer, Inc. Redesigned synthesis of sertraline, the active ingredient in Zoloft®, with only one synthetic step, a single benign solvent, an improved catalyst, selective crystallization, and double the previous yield (summary)
2000 Roche Colorado Corporation Guanine TriEster Process for synthesis of ganciclovir, the active ingredient in Cytovene®, with one-third the synthetic steps, one half the reagents and intermediates (eliminating many hazardous ones), double the process throughput, increased yield (summary)
1999 Lilly Research Laboratories Synthesis of LY3000164, a drug candidate for the treatment of epilepsy, using a yeast-mediated asymmetric reaction, eliminating nonrecycled metal, and significantly reducing solvent use (summary)
1998 Argonne National Laboratory Pervaporation membranes and catalysts used to drive the esterification of organic acids to completion, resulting in an efficient, selective synthesis for lactate esters that also eliminates large volumes of salt waste (summary)
1998 Dr. Karen M. Draths and Professor John W. Frost, Michigan State University Synthesis of major industrial chemicals, adipic acid and catechol, using genetically manipulated microbes as synthetic catalysts (summary)
1998 Flexsys America L.P. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution for hydrogen (NASH) reactions eliminate chlorine from the synthesis of a commodity chemical, 4-aminodiphenylamine, reducing organic waste by 74 percent, inorganic waste by over 99 percent, and wastewater by over 97 percent (summary)
1998 Professor Barry M. Trost, Stanford University Concept of atom economy, maximizing incorporation of feedstocks and minimizing waste (summary)
1997 BHC Company (now BASF Corporation) Redesigned synthesis of ibuprofen with half the synthetic steps, approximately 80 percent atom utilization, and almost no waste (summary)
1996 Monsanto Company Redesigned synthesis of disodium iminodiacetate, the key intermediate in Round-upTM, using a catalytic dehydrogenation route with fewer process steps, increased yield, no formaldehyde or hydrogen cyanide, and essentially no waste (summary)

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Chemical Catalysts: 19 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology in Relation to the Topic Area
2012 Professor Geoffrey W. Coates, Cornell University A new family of catalysts with high selectivities, turnover frequencies, and turnover numbers can produce polymers from carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) (summary)
2012 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Metathesis catalysts developed by Nobel laureates Robert H. Grubbs and Richard Schrock break down crop oils and recombine the fragments into high-performance, green chemicals (summary)
2012 Professor Robert M. Waymouth, Stanford University;
Dr. James L. Hedrick, IBM Almaden Research Center
Metal-free, highly active, environmentally benign, organic catalysts synthesize biodegradable and biocompatible plastics (summary)
2010 The Dow Chemical Company;
BASF
A catalyst in the ZSM-5 family in which titanium replaces some of the silicon used to make propylene oxide from hydrogen peroxide (summary)
2009 Professor Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Carnegie Mellon University A copper catalyst and environmentally friendly reducing agents are recent improvements to Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) (summary)
2009 Virent Energy Systems, Inc. The BioForming® process for liquid hydrocarbon fuels includes several catalytic steps (summary)
2008 Dow AgroSciences LLC An environmentally friendly, catalytic synthesis for spinetoram insecticide starts with spinosyns J and L (summary)
2008 Professors Robert E. Maleczka, Jr. and Milton R. Smith, III, Michigan State University Iridium catalysts used in a halogen-free synthesis of boronic esters, intermediates for many important, complex molecules (summary)
2007 Headwaters Technology Innovation A palladium-platinum catalyst allows formation of hydrogen peroxide directly from hydrogen and oxygen (summary)
2007 Professor Michael J. Krische, University of Texas at Austin Metal complexes in the presence of hydrogen catalyze carbon–carbon bond formation to synthesize complex molecules, including chiral substances (summary)
2006 Merck & Co., Inc. Rhodium salts of a ferrocenyl-based ligand catalyze asymmetric hydrogenation of unprotected enamines to produce β-amino acids (summary)
2006 Professor Galen Suppes, University of Missouri-Columbia Copper chromite catalyst system efficiently converts glycerin to propylene glycol or hydroxyacetone (summary)
2004 Professors Charles A. Eckert and Charles L. Liotta, Georgia Institute of Technology Phase transfer catalysts used with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) can be recycled effectively; homogeneous catalysts (phase transfer catalysts, chiral catalysts, enzymes) are easier to recycle using CO2-expanded organic fluids (summary)
2003 Süd-Chemie Inc. (now a Clariant Group Company) Synthesis of solid oxide catalysts with virtually no wastewater discharge, no nitrate discharge, and little or no NOX emissions (summary)
2001 Professor Chao-Jun Li, Tulane University Transition metals as catalysts for reactions in air and water, replacing inert gas and organic solvents (summary)
1999 Professor Terry Collins, Carnegie Mellon University Iron-based TAMLTM activators catalyze the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide (summary)
1998 Professor Barry M. Trost, Stanford University Transition metal catalysis and main group catalysis as important tools for atom economy (summary)
1997 BHC Company (now BASF Corporation) Three catalytic steps replace six stoichiometric steps in the redesigned synthesis of ibuprofen (summary)
1996 Monsanto Company Proprietary copper catalysts dehydrogenate diethanolamine, allowing an alternate synthesis of disodium iminodiacetate, a key intermediate in the synthesis of the herbicide Roundup® (summary)

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Analysis: 2 technologies
Year Winner Description of the Winning Technology in Relation to the Topic Area
2009 CEM Corporation A fast, automated process tags proteins for accurate analysis (summary)
2008 Nalco Company Fluorescent-tagged molecules in the 3D TRASAR® system detect mineral scale formation, microbial growth, and corrosion in cooling water systems by real-time analysis, adding appropriate chemicals only when required (summary)

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