CyanoHABs News

October, 2014

NEEF’s Algal Bloom Photo Contest
EPA’s Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds in partnership with the National Environmental Education Foundation (NEEF) and the North American Lake Management Society asked Facebook and Instagram users to submit their photos of algal blooms using the hashtag #AlgalBloomPhoto14 to the Algal Bloom Photo Contest. With over 100 entries representing 27 states, the District of Columbia, Guam and even China, the top three photos were chosen. All of the photos were unique and thought-provoking, and will be used to build a photo library that will help educate people on the prevalence and impacts of algal blooms across the country. The winning photos can be viewed below, but please visit NEEF’s website and Flickr to learn more about the contest and to view all the entries.

EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) Grants to Ohio, Michigan and Indiana to Target Harmful Algal Blooms in Lake Erie
EPA awarded four Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) grants totaling over $8.6 million to Ohio, Michigan and Indiana state agencies to protect public health by targeting harmful algal blooms in western Lake Erie. These Great Lake Restoration Initiative grants to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (approximately $5.9 million), the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (over $1.5 million), the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (approximately $807,000) and the Indiana Department of Agriculture (approximately $360,000) will fund eight projects. The grants will be used to:

  • Provide technical assistance and incentives to farmers in western Lake Erie watersheds to reduce phosphorus runoff that contributes to harmful algal blooms.
  • Improve measurement of phosphorus loads in Lake Erie tributaries.

The recently released GLRI Action Plan lays out a strategy for increased federal efforts to reduce agricultural and urban runoff in these three priority watersheds during 2015-19.

NOAA Sea Grant awards $15.9 million for projects to build resilient coastal communities
NOAA Sea Grant announced today grants totaling $15.9 million to support over 300 projects around the nation that help build resilient coastal communities and economies. Through university, state and other partnerships, Sea Grant Programs will supplement the federal funding with an additional $7.9 million in non-federal matching funds, bringing the total investment to more than $23.8 million.

NOAA’s Predicting harmful algal blooms Video
Learn how NOAA's Integrated Ocean Observing System tracks and predicts harmful algal blooms using satellites in space, buoys on the surface of the ocean, and sensors on the ocean floor. Harmful algal blooms, or HABs, occur when colonies of algae—simple ocean plants that live in the sea—grow out of control while producing toxic or harmful effects on people, fish, shellfish, marine mammals and birds. The human illnesses caused by HABs, though rare, can be debilitating or even fatal.

Iowa scientists point to health effects of climate change
A statement signed by 180 science faculty and research staff from 38 Iowa colleges and universities signed a statement called “The Iowa Climate Statement 2014: Impacts on the Health of Iowans” , marking the fourth annual statement issued by Iowa scientists and researchers.


Effect of microcystin-LR on human placental villous trophoblast differentiation in vitro
Douglas, G. C., Thirkill, T. L., Kumar, P., Loi, M. and Hilborn, E. D.
Environ. Toxicol. 2014 . doi: 10.1002/tox.22056

Dynamics of the Toxin Cylindrospermopsin and the Cyanobacterium Chrysosporum (Aphanizomenon) ovalisporum in a Mediterranean Eutrophic Reservoir
Fadel, A.; Atoui, A.; Lemaire, B.J.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Slim, K. Toxins 2014, 6, 3041-3057. This article belongs to the Special Edition“Public Health and HABs”

Presence of Potential Toxin-Producing Cyanobacteria in an Oligo-Mesotrophic Lake in Baltic Lake District, Germany: An Ecological, Genetic and Toxicological Survey
Pawan K. Dadheech, Géza B. Selmeczy, Gábor Vasas, Judit Padisák, Wolfgang Arp, Kálmán Tapolczai, Peter Casper and Lothar Krienitz Toxins 2014, 6(10), 2912-2931

Nitrogen Limitation Promotes Accumulation and Suppresses Release of Cylindrospermopsins in Cells of Aphanizomenon Sp. Karina Preußel, Ingrid Chorus and Jutta Fastner; Toxins 2014, 6(10), 2932-2947

Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong
Thomas Y. K. Chan; Toxins 2014, 6(10), 2989-2997

Estimation of cyanobacteria biovolume in water reservoirs by MERIS sensor
M. Medina-Cobo, J.A. Domínguez, A. Quesada, C. de Hoyos; Water Research, Volume 63, 15 October 2014, Pages 10-20

Ozonation degradation of microcystin-LR in aqueous solution: Intermediates, byproducts and pathways
Jing Chang, Zhong-lin Chen, Zhe Wang, Ji-min Shen, Qian Chen, Jing Kang, Lei Yang, Xiao-wei Liu, Chang-xin Nie
Water Research, Volume 63, 15 October 2014, Pages 52-61

Kinetics and mechanisms of cylindrospermopsin destruction by sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes
Xuexiang He, Armah A. de la Cruz, Kevin E. O'Shea, Dionysios D. Dionysiou; Water Research, Volume 63, 15 October 2014, Pages 168-178

Toxic Algae and Health Advisories – October 2014
California - Austin Park, Sulfur Bank Mine Beach, Kimtu Beach Park on the Trinity River Clear Lake Oaks
Kansas - Chisholm Creek Park Lake (North), Memorial Park Lake (Veteran’s Lake), Jewell State Fishing Lake,
Oregon – Walterville Pond, Tenmile Lakes, Willamette River, Wickiup Reservoir, Cullaby Lake, ​Willow Creek Reservoir, South Umpqua River and Lawson Bar.
Ohio - Grand Lake - Windy Point, Grand Lake St. Marys State Park Campground Beach, and Grand Lake St. Marys State Park Main Beach West and East
Rhode Island - Blackamore Pond (Cranston) and Scott Pond(Lincoln)
Utah – Utah Lake – related news Dog dies after exposed to toxic blue-green algae in Utah Lake

September, 2014

What EPA is Doing to combat the nitrogen and phosphorus pollution problems in the U.S.
EPA is working diligently with its partners to combat the nitrogen and phosphorus pollution problems in the U.S., including:

Cyanobacteria blooms and toxins in water resources : Occurrence, impacts and management (CYANOCOST)
CYANOCOST will focus on toxigenic cyanobacteria that produce a wide range of potent toxins with adverse health effects on humans and animals exposed to them via drinking water, aquaculture and recreation. CYANOCOST aims to coordinate and network the ongoing efforts and capabilities across Europe for the risk management of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in water bodies, by establishing strong collaboration between academia, authorities, industry and citizens.

34th International Symposium North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) - November 12 - 14, 2014
NALMS and the Florida Lake Management Society invite you to join us for NALMS 2014 at the Tampa Marriott Waterside Hotel & Marina in Tampa, Florida. NALMS 2014 offers an opportunity to bring together lake managers, regulators, educators, researchers, students and corporate partners from around the continent and the world to share the results of research and management, to exchange ideas and information, and to learn about advancements in technology, management, and knowledge. Six sessions on Harmful Algal Blooms are scheduled.

16th International Conference on Harmful Algae (ICHA) - October 27–31, 2014
The 16th ICHA conference will be held in the Convention Centre, Wellington City, New Zealand. The theme of the conference is “Advancement Through Shared Science” in recognition of the multidisciplinary nature of the field and the important role that international collaboration has played in the understanding of HAB phenomena and the mitigation of their effects.

Updated Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: Information for Drinking Water Systems Fact sheet
The Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: Information for Drinking Water Systems Fact Sheet has been updated to include information on sample collection, handling and analysis.


Ultrasound-chitosan enhanced flocculation of low algal turbid waters
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Available online 27 September 2014
Sara Ann Fast, Veera Gnaneswar Gude

Colorimetric microtiter plate receptor-binding assay for the detection of freshwater and marine neurotoxins targeting the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
Toxicon, Available online 27 September 2014
Fernando Rubio, Lisa Kamp, Justin Carpino, Erin Faltin, Keith Loftin, Jordi Molgó, Romulo Aráoz

Histological effects and localization of dissolved microcystins LR and LW in the mayfly Ecdyonurus angelieri Thomas (Insecta, Ephemeroptera)
Toxicon, Available online 23 September 2014
Sergio Liarte, Nicolás Ubero-Pascal, Alfonsa García-Ayala, Maria-Angeles Puig

High performance sulfur, nitrogen and carbon doped mesoporous anatase–brookite TiO2 photocatalyst for the removal of microcystin-LR under visible light irradiation
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 280, 15 September 2014, Pages 723-733
Said M. El-Sheikh, Geshan Zhang, Hamza M. El-Hosainy, Adel A. Ismail, Kevin E. O'Shea, Polycarpos Falaras, Athanassios G. Kontos, Dionysios D. Dionysiou

Human responses to Florida red tides: Policy awareness and adherence to local fertilizer ordinances
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 493, 15 September 2014, Pages 898-909
Barbara Kirkpatrick, Kate Kohler, Margaret Byrne, Lora E. Fleming, Karen Scheller, Andrew Reich, Gary Hitchcock, Gary Kirkpatrick, Steven Ullmann, Porter Hoagland

First report of microcystin-producing Fischerella sp. (Stigonematales, Cyanobacteria) in tropical Australia
Toxicon, Volume 88, 15 September 2014, Pages 62-66
Samuel Cirés, Carlos Alvarez-Roa, Susanna A. Wood, Jonathan Puddick, Virginia Loza, Kirsten Heimann

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a rainbow trout liver Oatp
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Available online 12 September 2014 Konstanze Steiner, Bruno Hagenbuch, Daniel R. Dietrich

Neurotoxic effects induced subchronically by CYN in tilapias and their reversion after two different depuration periods
Toxicology Letters, Volume 229, Supplement, 10 September 2014, Page S172
Inmaculada Lomares, Victoria Rios, Remedios Guzman-Guillen, Ana I. Prieto, Isabel M. Moreno, Alfonso Blanco, Rosario Moyano, Ana M. Cameán

Pitfalls in microcystin extraction and recovery from human blood serum
Chemico-Biological Interactions, Available online 6 September 2014
Alexandra H. Heussner, Stefan Altaner, Lisa Kamp, Fernando Rubio, Daniel R. Dietrich

Accurately predicting building energy performance using evolutionary multivariate adaptive regression splines
Applied Soft Computing, Volume 22, September 2014, Pages 178-188
Min-Yuan Cheng, Minh-Tu Cao

Cellular transport of microcystin-LR in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) across the intestinal wall: Possible involvement of multidrug resistance-associated proteins
Aquatic Toxicology, Volume 154, September 2014, Pages 97-106
Flavia Bieczynski, Julieta S. De Anna, Macarena Pirez, Beatríz M. Brena, Silvina S.M. Villanueva, Carlos M. Luquet

Inhibitory effect of naringin on microcystin-LR uptake in the freshwater snail Sinotaia histrica
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 38, Issue 2, September 2014, Pages 430-437
Liqiang Xie, Tamami Hanyu, Noriko Futatsugi, Masaharu Komatsu, Alan D. Steinman, Ho-Dong Park

Characterizing the transcriptome of yellow-cheek carp (Elopichthys bambusa) enables evolutionary analyses within endemic East Asian Cyprinidae
Gene, Volume 547, Issue 2, 1 September 2014, Pages 267-272
Ming Zou, Baocheng Guo, Xufa Ma

Demonstrating the relationship between soil phosphorus measures and phosphorus solubility: Implications for Ohio phosphorus risk assessment tools
Journal of Great Lakes Research, Volume 40, Issue 3, September 2014, Pages 473-478
Elizabeth A. Dayton, Shane D. Whitacre, Christopher H. Holloman

Ménage-à-trois: The Amoeba Nuclearia sp. from Lake Zurich with its Ecto- and Endosymbiotic Bacteria
Protist, Volume 165, Issue 5, September 2014, Pages 745-758
Sebastian Dirren, Michaela M. Salcher, Judith F. Blom, Michael Schweikert, Thomas Posch

Environmental modulation of microcystin and β-N-methylamino-L-alanine as a function of nitrogen availability
Toxicon, Volume 87, 1 September 2014, Pages 1-5
L.L. Scott, S. Downing, R.R. Phelan, T.G. Downing

Microcystin accumulation in cladocerans: First evidence of MC uptake from aqueous extracts of a natural bloom sample
Toxicon, Volume 87, 1 September 2014, Pages 26-31
Aloysio S. Ferrão-Filho, Natalia A. Herrera, Luis Fernando Echeverri

Cylindrospermopsin decreases the oxidative burst capacity of human neutrophils
Toxicon, Volume 87, 1 September 2014, Pages 113-119
Barbara Poniedziałek, Piotr Rzymski, Jacek Karczewski

NF-κB plays a key role in microcystin-RR-induced HeLa cell proliferation and apoptosis
Toxicon, Volume 87, 1 September 2014, Pages 120-130
Liang Chen, Xin Zhang, Jun Chen, Xuezhen Zhang, Huihui Fan, Shangchun Li, Ping Xie

Are interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution a concern for water quality management?
Water Research, Volume 60, 1 September 2014, Pages 41-53
Jennifer D. Hochmuth, Jana Asselman, Karel A.C. De Schamphelaere

Toxic Algae and Health Advisories – September 2014

California - Austin Park, Sulfur Bank Mine Beach, Kimtu Beach Park on the Trinity River Clear Lake Oaks
Kansas - Brown County State Fishing Lake, Hiawatha City Lake, Chisholm Creek Park Lake, Memorial Park Lake, Jewell State Fishing Lake, Lake Warnock, South Park Lake, Milford Reservoir
Maryland - Liverpool Point and Mallows Bay
Oregon – Wickiup Reservoir, Cullaby Lake, and Willamette River

August, 2014

EPA representatives on the U.S. Interagency Working Group on Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), Hypoxia, and Human Health (IWG-4H)
Dr. Blake Schaeffer (Office of Research and Development) and Dr. Lesley D’Anglada (Office of Water) will represent the U.S. EPA on the soon to be re-established U.S. Interagency Working Group on Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), Hypoxia, and Human Health (IWG-4H) as part of the recently passed Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Amendments Act of 2014. One of the actions of the Task Force will be to develop and submit to Congress a comprehensive research plan and action strategy to address marine and freshwater harmful algal blooms and hypoxia.

ASDWA Drinking Water Survey (PDF) (9 pp, 232K, About PDF)
Summary report of the survey to learn what states are doing regarding cyanobacteria and drinking water. A total of 34 states, the Navajo Nation, and Quebec, Canada responded to the survey. The survey responses indicate that while a small number of states and Quebec have created programs, developed health thresholds, and enacted policies and protocols for sampling and issuing public notices, all of the respondents would like to have more Federal (or national) leadership to help them address these issues.

Requests for Proposal: Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research, Fiscal Year 2015 National Competitive HAB Programs
The NOAA/NOS/NCCOS/CSCOR Request for Proposals to conduct research on Harmful Algal Blooms has now been published. The following is the regional rotation of the programs.
PCMHAB: Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Pacific Islands
MERHAB: West Coast, Alaska, Great Lakes
ECOHAB: South Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic, Gulf of Maine
A Letter of Intent is required and due at 5 pm on September 30, 2014. The proposals are due at 3 pm on December 15, 2014.
The complete RFP can be found at by searching on ECOHAB, MERHAB or PCMHAB.

ASDWA New webpage on HABs
This webpage provides information and resources for state drinking water programs on assessing and addressing HABs and their associated toxins in drinking water supplies..

Algal Bloom Photo Contest
The National Environmental Education Foundation (NEEF), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) want you to help spot and document algal blooms in our waters. Submit your photos of algal blooms where you live, vacation and recreate for a chance to win great prizes. Your submissions will help build a photo library that can be used to educate more people about algal blooms and illustrate the prevalence and impacts of algal blooms around the country. Prizes: 1st: Nikon D5300 SLR Camera and winning algal bloom photo featured on the NALMS Lakeline Magazine Cover; 2nd: Nikon Coolpix AW120 Camera and 3rd:$100 REI Gift Card First prize sponsored by the North American Lake Management Society™ Submission Deadline: September 30, 2014 at 5:00 p.m. (ET) Who Can Enter: All participants must be 13 years of age or older and U.S. residents.


Free Access Special Issue of Deep-Sea Research Part II Harmful Algae in the Gulf of Maine: Oceanography, Population Dynamics, and Toxin Transfer in the Food Web
This special issue is free to access online until 31 January 2015. This issue presents the results of 5 years of research undertaken by a multi-investigator program, GOMTOX (Gulf of Maine Toxicity), formulated and funded through the NOAA ECOHAB program. This volume consists of a series of papers describing the results of the GOMTOX program, which constitute 26 of the 69 GOMTOX papers to date. Scientific themes covered in the volume include: (1) cysts and sediment dynamics; (2) ecology and bloom dynamics; (3) the physical/chemical setting; (4) toxin dynamics, food web transfer, and monitoring; and (5) management implications.

Keeping Tabs on HABs: New Tools for Detecting, Monitoring, and Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms
Emerging technologies are enabling researchers to study the ecology of harmful algal blooms (HABs) more precisely and efficiently than ever before in both fresh- and saltwater environments. Improved communications capabilities, higher-resolution satellite imagery, and smaller, more powerful sensors have contributed to significant advances in recent years, at the same time HAB activity has escalated worldwide.

Bioreactor Study Employing Bacteria with Enhanced Activity toward Cyanobacterial Toxins Microcystins
by Dariusz Dziga, Magdalena Lisznianska and Benedykt Wladyka; Toxins 2014, 6(8), 2379-2392; doi:10.3390/toxins6082379 This article belongs to the Special Issue Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Public Health: Progress and Current Challenges

Microcystins in groundwater wells and their accumulation in vegetable plants irrigated with contaminated waters in Saudi Arabia
By Mohamed ZA and Al Shehri AM J Hazard Mater. 2009 Dec 15;172(1):310-5. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.010

For more information please visit the CyanoHABs website.

July, 2014

EPA’s CyanoHABs website New Look!
The Cyanobacterial HABs (cyanoHABs) website has a new look as well as new features. The main page was updated in order to make the overall website more user friendly, more visually pleasing and a better representation of the wide range of information included in the various tabs. For each tab, the information is presented in a Question and Answer format making it easier to read, and new information, pictures and links were included on each tab, including contact information for laboratories that provide cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins sampling and analysis services for each state in the State Resources tab. Explore further and you will find more pictures, tables and information.

Obama Signs Bipartisan Bill to Enhance Efforts to Control Algae Blooms, Hypoxia
President Barack Obama signed into law June 30 the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Amendments Act (S. 1254) to help deal with the problem of oxygen depletion in marine areas and freshwater bodies. The law requires the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to maintain and enhance a national program to control and mitigate harmful algal bloom and hypoxia events. S. 1254 reauthorizes federal programs that expired in 2010, and it authorizes $20.5 million in annual funding for the programs for fiscal years 2014 through 2018. The legislation had strong bipartisan support. It was passed by the Senate in February and by the House June 9.

Researchers Predict Larger Algae Bloom in Lake Erie
Lake Erie will see a larger-than-average bloom of toxic algae late this summer, according to the University of Michigan researchers. The university and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration forecast a western basin Lake Erie cyanobacteria bloom of 22,000 metric tons dry weight. Over the last decade, the blooms have averaged 14,000 metric tons, the researchers said. Harmful algae blooms have increased over the past decade, as agricultural operations release phosphorus and other nutrients into the watersheds feeding into the lake, the university researchers said. “Until we reduce the flow of nutrients from croplands into the lake, large algae blooms will likely continue to plague Lake Erie,” Don Scavia, director of the university's Graham Sustainability Institute, said in a July 10 statement. The blooms can produce toxins that taint drinking and recreational water. Blooms can also reduce fish populations and lead to the formation of low-oxygen “dead zones.” The International Joint Commission has called on federal and state governments in the U.S. and Canada to take steps to reduce nutrient pollution in Lake Erie.

Great Lakes Restoration Initiative
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a Request for Applications soliciting proposals from states, municipalities, tribes, universities and nonprofit organizations for Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grants to fund new projects to restore and protect the Great Lakes. Up to $27.5 million will be available during the current funding cycle. Grants will be awarded on a competitive basis for projects in the Great Lakes basin. Applications are due August 25, 2014.

"This round of Great Lakes Restoration Initiative funding will be used for projects that control invasive species, prevent the discharge of nutrients and sediment, and improve water quality in the Great Lakes," said EPA Great Lakes National Program Manager Susan Hedman. "The work funded by these grants will help to restore and protect waters that are essential to the health and jobs of millions of Americans."

EPA’s It All Starts with Science! Blogs
Modeling Cyanobacteria Ecology to Keep Harmful Algal Blooms at Bay Monitoring Harmful Algal Blooms? There’s an App for That! Open Science and Cyanobacterial Research at EPA


Evaluation of cyanobacteria cell count detection derived from MERIS imagery across the eastern USA by Ross Lunetta, Blake Schaeffer, Richard Stumpf, Darryl Keith, Scott Jacobs, and Mark Murphy; Remote Sensing of Environment 2014

Kinetics and mechanisms of cylindrospermopsin destruction by sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes by Xuexiang He, Armah A. de la Cruz, Kevin E. O'Shea, Dionysios D. Dionysiou Water Research, Volume 63, 15 October 2014, Pages 168-178 

Microcystins Alter Chemotactic Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans by Selectively Targeting the AWA Sensory Neuron by Caroline Moore, Pamela Lein and Birgit Puschner Toxins 2014, 6(6), 1813-1836

Exposure of Lycopersicon Esculentum to Microcystin-LR: Effects in the Leaf Proteome and Toxin Translocation from Water to Leaves and Fruits by Daniel Gutiérrez-Praena, Alexandre Campos, Joana Azevedo, Joana Neves, Marisa Freitas, Remédios Guzmán-Guillén, Ana Cameán, Jenny Renaut and Vitor Vasconcelos Toxins 2014, 6(6), 1837-1854

A High-Throughput, Precipitating Colorimetric Sandwich ELISA Microarray for Shiga Toxins by Andrew Gehring, Xiaohua He, Pina Fratamico, Joseph Lee, Lori Bagi, Jeffrey Brewster, George Paoli, Yiping He, Yanping Xie, Craig Skinner, Charlie Barnett and Douglas Harris Toxins 2014, 6(6), 1855-1872

Impact of Nitrogen Sources on Gene Expression and Toxin Production in the Diazotroph Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii CS-505 and Non-Diazotroph Raphidiopsis brookii D9 by Karina Stucken, Uwe John, Allan Cembella, Katia Soto-Liebe and Mónica Vásquez Toxins 2014, 6(6), 1896-1915

Oligopeptides as Biomarkers of Cyanobacterial Subpopulations. Toward an Understanding of Their Biological Role by Ramsy Agha and Antonio Quesada Toxins 2014, 6(6), 1929-1950

Impact of Environmental Factors on the Regulation of Cyanotoxin Production by Thangavelu Boopathi and Jang-Seu Ki Toxins 2014, 6(7), 1951-1978; doi:10.3390/toxins6071951

Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria by Mari Vasama, Himanshu Kumar, Seppo Salminen and Carolyn A. Haskard Toxins 2014, 6(7), 2127-2136

June, 2014

HABHRCA passed by unanimous consent in the House and Senate
The Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Amendments Act of 2013 is waiting to be signed by the president.

NEXT EPA SPONSORED WEBINAR:  “How To Protect Your Drinking Water From Harmful Algal Blooms” July 16 - at 1:00pm EST. Karen Sklenar (The Cadmus Group) and Tom Conry from Waco Water Utilities Services will discuss of the impact HABs can have on drinking water sources, the extent to which treatment facilities can remove toxins, and ultimately how people can help to reduce the environmental, health, and economic problem in the future. Register here

Farming rules to cut algae
Ohio farmers will need certification to apply fertilizer to fields

Bacteria, Eelgrass, and Harmful Algal Blooms: Understanding the Relationship algicidal bacteria in the Salish Sea
A a group of researchers to study bacteria associated with the eelgrass Zostera marina that could stomp out harmful algal blooms (HABs).

How bad will toxic algae be this year?: Experts alter method for bloom forecasts
Scientists will meet July 10 at The Ohio State University’s Stone Laboratory on Gibraltar Island near Put-in-Bay to release their predictions for this summer.

New Research

Managing microcystin: identifying national-scale thresholds for total nitrogen and chlorophyll a
Yuan, L. L., Pollard, A. I., Pather, S., Oliver, J. L. and D'Anglada, L. (2014), Freshwater Biology. doi: 10.1111/fwb.12400

Total microcystins analysis in water using laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry
Audrey Roy-Lachapelle, Paul B. Fayad, Marc Sinotte, Christian Deblois, Sébastien Sauvé, Analytica Chimica Acta, Volume 820, 11 April 2014, Pages 76-83, ISSN 0003-2670,

Summary of microcystin concentrations in Minnesota lakes
Steve Heiskary, Matthew Lindon, Jesse Anderson, Lake and Reservoir Management, Vol. 30, Iss. 3, 2014

May, 2014

EPA’s Webinar: Prevention, Control and Mitigation of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins
EPA’s Office of Science and Technology conducted a webinar on Wednesday, May 14th, on the Prevention, Control and Mitigation of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins. The presentations are posted on the Control and Treatment tab at the CyanoHABs webpage and the audio recording is available.

House Science Panel OKs Bill to Enhance Research, Control Efforts for Algae Blooms
A House committee approved by voice vote May 21 the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Amendments Act (S. 1254) to authorize a national strategy of research, mitigation and control for algal blooms that kill fish and shellfish by depleting oxygen in marine and freshwater bodies. The bill was approved by the Senate in February. It still must make it through the House Natural Resources Committee before it can go to the full House.

Taking the fight to Lake Erie algal blooms before they reach Western New York
Government officials and environmentalists in Buffalo aim at stopping toxic blue-green algae in Lake Erie before it reaches Western New York. They called for a two-pronged federal approach involving the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Sea Otter’s Scourge
Microcystin stalks marine mammals off the coast of California and kills dogs and cats further inland.

Climate change brings mostly bad news for Ohio
Scientists delivered a mostly negative forecast for how climate change will affect Ohioans during the next year or so, and well beyond

Blue-green algae in Kansas water
Warnings and Advisories in place from the previous sampling season.

New Research

Land use patterns, ecoregion, and microcystin relationships in U.S. lakes and reservoirs: A preliminary evaluation
John R. Beaver, Erin E. Manis, Keith A. Loftin, Jennifer L. Graham, Amina I. Pollard, and Richard M. Mitchell Harmful Algae, Volume 36, June 2014, Pages 57-62, ISSN 1568-9883

Survival, growth and toxicity of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 in experimental conditions mimicking some features of the human gastro-intestinal environment
Mara Stefanelli, Susanna Vichi, Giuseppe Stipa, Enzo Funari, Emanuela Testai, Simona Scardala, Maura Manganelli, Chemico-Biological Interactions, Volume 215, 25 May 2014, Pages 54-61, ISSN 0009-2797

Rapid quantitative analysis of microcystins in raw surface waters with MALDI MS utilizing easily synthesized internal standards
Amber F. Roegner, Macarena Pírez Schirmer, Birgit Puschner, Beatriz Brena, Gualberto Gonzalez-Sapienza, Toxicon, Volume 78, February 2014, Pages 94-102, ISSN 0041-0101

Cyanotoxin occurrence and potentially toxin producing cyanobacteria in freshwaters of Greece: A multi-disciplinary approach
Spyros Gkelis, Nikos Zaoutsos, Toxicon, Volume 78, February 2014, Pages 1-9, ISSN 0041-0101

Investigating the production and release of cylindrospermopsin and deoxy-cylindrospermopsin by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii over a natural growth cycle
Timothy W. Davis, Philip T. Orr, Gregory L. Boyer, Michele A. Burford, Harmful Algae, Volume 31, January 2014, Pages 18-25, ISSN 1568-9883

Status, causes and controls of cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie
Morgan M. Steffen, B. Shafer Belisle, Sue B. Watson, Gregory L. Boyer, Steven W. Wilhelm, Journal of Great Lakes Research, Available online 25 January 2014, ISSN 0380-1330

Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii dominates under very low and high nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratios
Michael F. Chislock, Katherine L. Sharp, Alan E. Wilson, Water Research, Volume 49, 1 February 2014, Pages 207-214, ISSN 0043-1354,

Acute, chronic and reproductive toxicity of complex cyanobacterial blooms in Daphnia magna and the role of microcystins
Marie Smutná, Pavel Babica, Sergio Jarque, Klára Hilscherová, Blahoslav Maršálek, Maher Haeba, Ludek Bláha, Toxicon, Volume 79, 1 March 2014, Pages 11-18, ISSN 0041-0101

A nanosensor based on quantum-dot haptens for rapid, on-site immunoassay of cyanotoxin in environmental water
Long Feng, Anna Zhu, Hongchen Wang, Hanchang Shi, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Volume 53, 15 March 2014, Pages 1-4, ISSN 0956-5663,

Inductive reasoning and forecasting of population dynamics of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in three sub-tropical reservoirs by evolutionary computation
Friedrich Recknagel, Philip T. Orr, Hongqing Cao, Harmful Algae, Volume 31, January 2014, Pages 26-34, ISSN 1568-9883.

April, 2014

Webinar Prevention, Control and Mitigation of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins on May 14, 2014
EPA’s Office of Science and Technology will be conducting a webinar on Wednesday, May 14th, on the Prevention, Control and Mitigation of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins. The focus of this webinar is to share with interested public health personnel, environmental scientists and state/federal regulators information on prevention, control and mitigation options for cyanobacteria and their toxins in freshwater systems. The webinar will be from 9:30am to 4:00pm (EST). Webinar and call-in information will be provided before the webinar. Contact Lesley D'Anglada ( for more information.

2014 Joint Aquatic Sciences Meeting
To be held at the Oregon Convention Center on May 18 to 23, 2014. To learn more about the meeting, and to review the list of scientific sessions.

Breakthrough in Water Purification and Cancer Treatment
A research team in Korea developed a new technology whereby florescent green carbon nanotags (G-tags) can be mass produced from cyanobacteria to be used for cancer tracing and treatment.

Revolutionary Drone System to Control, Monitor and Treat Green Algae Blooms
The European consortium will develop an innovative, environmental and cost-effective method to control harmful algae blooms in lakes, inland water reservoirs, seas and harbors. This technology consists of two water drones with water sensors to localize hotspots of algae blooms and offer the required treatment with ultrasound frequency

Parsons grant to enhance several research programs at William & Mary's Virginia Institute of Marine Science Foundation
The Mary Morton Parsons Foundation has provided with a leadership grant of $400,000 that VIMS researchers will use to purchase a state-of-the-art “confocal” microscope—a laser microscope capable of generating high-resolution 3-D images that uses point-by-point illumination to construct extremely high-resolution images. The confocal microscope will aid scientists in several research areas—including studies of harmful algal blooms.

UC Davis scientists solve the case of the red abalone die-off using new tool
Communications, the researchers call this new approach "forensic genomics." It involves a combination of field surveys, toxin testing and genomic scans.

Cause of Lake Erie’s Harmful Algal Blooms Gains More Certainty
New research finds that agricultural practices lead to biggest threat to water quality and health in the Great Lakes

New Research

Degradation Mechanism of Cyanobacterial Toxin Cylindrospermopsin by Hydroxyl Radicals in Homogeneous UV/H2O2 Process
This study demonstrates the efficiency of CYN degradation and provides a better understanding of the mechanism of CYN degradation by hydroxyl radical, a reactive oxygen species that can be generated by most AOPs and is present in natural water environment.

Xuexiang He, Geshan Zhang, Armah A. de la Cruz, Kevin E. O’Shea, and Dionysios D. Dionysiou. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2014, 48, 4495−4504

March, 2014

Smithsonian scientists solve 'sudden death at sea' mystery
A team of Smithsonian and Chilean scientists examined a large fossil site of ancient marine mammal skeletons in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile—the first definitive example of repeated mass strandings of marine mammals in the fossil record. The site reflected four distinct strandings over time, indicating a repeated and similar cause: toxic algae.

Algal biofilm based technology for wastewater treatment
Maureen Kesaano, Ronald C. Sims, Algal Research, Available online 15 March 2014

Regional algal biofuel production potential in the coterminous United States as affected by resource availability trade-offs
Erik R. Venteris, Richard L. Skaggs, Mark S. Wigmosta, Andre M. Coleman, Algal Research, Available online 15 March 2014

Influence of Two Depuration Periods on the Activity and Transcription of Antioxidant Enzymes in Tilapia Exposed to Repeated Doses of Cylindrospermopsin under Laboratory Conditions
Victoria Ríos, Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, Isabel M. Moreno, Ana I. Prieto, María Puerto, Angeles Jos and Ana M. Cameán Toxins 2014, 6, 1062-1079

The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae
Olivia Daniels, Larelle Fabbro and Sandrine Makiela, Toxins 2014, 6(3), 1021-1035

Presence of the Neurotoxin BMAA in Aquatic Ecosystems: What Do We Really Know?: A Review
Elisabeth Faassen, Toxins 2014, 6(3), 1109-1138

2014 Joint Aquatic Sciences Meeting
To be held at the Oregon Convention Center on May 18 to 23, 2014. Please go to to learn more about the meeting, and to review the list of scientific sessions.

S.1254: Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Amendments Act of 2013
On Feb. 12, the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Act passed the U.S. Senate. It will now go to the U.S. House of Representatives for consideration. This bill is to amend the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Act of 1998 on the National Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Program, to develop a Comprehensive Research Plan and Action Strategy, and to submit progress reports to the congress, such as an integrated assessment on hypoxia and harmful algal blooms in the Great Lakes.

Joint US-Canada Agency Calls for Big Phosphorus Reductions in Lake Erie
The International Joint Commission released a report on Thursday titled 'A Balanced Diet for Lake Erie: Reducing Phosphorous Loadings and Harmful Algal Blooms,' based on the research of dozens of scientists from both sides of the border. The report proposes a 46 percent cut in the average annual phosphorus load in Lake Erie’s central and western basins to reduce the hypoxic dead zone, and a 39 percent cut in the average annual phosphorus contributed by the Maumee River to reduce harmful algal blooms. More information here:

Smithsonian scientists solve 'sudden death at sea' mystery
A team of Smithsonian and Chilean scientists examined a large fossil site of ancient marine mammal skeletons in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile—the first definitive example of repeated mass strandings of marine mammals in the fossil record. The site reflected four distinct strandings over time, indicating a repeated and similar cause: toxic algae.

February, 2014

2014 Joint Aquatic Sciences Meeting
To be held at the Oregon Convention Center on May 18 to 23, 2014. Please go to to learn more about the meeting, and to review the list of scientific sessions.

Workshop on Chemical Methods for the Study of Toxic Algae
To be held at the Florida International University on March 8 to 12, 2014. Please contact Kathleen Rein <> if you have questions.

Detection of Anatoxin-a and Three Analogs in Anabaena spp. Cultures: New Fluorescence Polarization Assay and Toxin Profile by LC-MS/MS
Jon Sanchez, Paz Otero, Amparo Alfonso, Vitor Ramos, Vitor Vasconcelos, Romulo Aráoz, Jordi Molgó, Mercedes Vieytes and Luis Botana Toxins 2014, 6(2), 402-415

Co-occurrence of the Cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA and Anatoxin-a in Nebraska Reservoirs, Fish, and Aquatic Plants
Maitham Al-Sammak, Kyle Hoagland, David Cassada and Daniel Snow Toxins 2014, 6(2), 488-508

Geographical Patterns in Cyanobacteria Distribution: Climate Influence at Regional Scale
Frédéric Pitois, Isabelle Thoraval, Estelle Baurès and Olivier Thomas Toxins 2014, 6(2), 509-522

Experimental manipulation of TN:TP ratios suppress cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in large-scale in situ mesocosms
Ted D. Harris, Frank M. Wilhelm, Jennifer L. Graham, Keith A. Loftin, Lake and Reservoir Management Vol. 30, Iss. 1, 2014

Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration
Ted D. Harris, Frank M. Wilhelm, Jennifer L. Graham, Keith A. Loftin, Lake and Reservoir Management , Vol. 30, Iss. 1, 2014

Optimization of the cultivation conditions for Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 (cyanobacterium) to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production
Caroline Souza Pamplona Silva, Maria Estela Silva-Stenico, Marli Fátima Fiore, Heizir Ferreira de Castro, Patrícia Caroline Molgero Da Rós, Algal Research, Volume 3, January 2014, Pages 1-7, ISSN 2211-9264

Azide improves triglyceride yield in microalgae
Tatyana Rachutin Zalogin, Uri Pick, Algal Research, Volume 3, January 2014, Pages 8-16, ISSN 2211-9264

Inhibition of nitrate reductase by azide in microalgae results in triglycerides accumulation
Tatyana Rachutin Zalogin, Uri Pick, Algal Research, Volume 3, January 2014, Pages 17-23, ISSN 2211-9264

Influence of magnesium concentration, biomass concentration and pH on flocculation of Chlorella vulgaris
J. Saúl García-Pérez, Annelies Beuckels, Dries Vandamme, Orily Depraetere, Imogen Foubert, Roberto Parra, Koenraad Muylaert, Algal Research, Volume 3, January 2014, Pages 24-29, ISSN 2211-9264

Microalgae flocculation: Impact of flocculant type, algae species and cell concentration
Jose A. Gerde, Linxing Yao, JunYi Lio, Zhiyou Wen, Tong Wang, Algal Research, Volume 3, January 2014, Pages 30-35, ISSN 2211-9264

Influence of extraction solvent system on extractability of lipid components from different microalgae species
Eline Ryckebosch, Charlotte Bruneel, Romina Termote-Verhalle, Koenraad Muylaert, Imogen Foubert, Algal Research, Volume 3, January 2014, Pages 36-43, ISSN 2211-9264

Release of hydro-soluble microalgal proteins using mechanical and chemical treatments
Carl Safi, Michael Charton, Alina Violeta Ursu, Céline Laroche, Bachar Zebib, Pierre-Yves Pontalier, Carlos Vaca-Garcia, Algal Research, Volume 3, January 2014, Pages 55-60, ISSN 2211-9264

Aqueous extraction of proteins from microalgae: Effect of different cell disruption methods
Carl Safi, Alina Violeta Ursu, Céline Laroche, Bachar Zebib, Othmane Merah, Pierre-Yves Pontalier, Carlos Vaca-Garcia, Algal Research, Volume 3, January 2014, Pages 61-65, ISSN 2211-9264

Economic viability of a reverse engineered algae farm (REAF)
James W. Richardson, Myriah D. Johnson, Algal Research, Volume 3, January 2014, Pages 66-70, ISSN 2211-9264

The environmental photobioreactor (ePBR): An algal culturing platform for simulating dynamic natural environments
Ben F. Lucker, Christopher C. Hall, Robert Zegarac, David M. Kramer, Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264

An analysis of energy consumption for algal biodiesel production: Comparing the literature with current estimates
Adam J. Dassey, Steven G. Hall, Chandra S. Theegala, Algal Research, Available online 29 January 2014, ISSN 2211-9264

Temperature dependency of cell wall destruction of microalgae with liquid nitrogen pretreatment and hydraulic pressing
Aya Abbassi, Mehmood Ali, Ian A. Watson, Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264

Life cycle assessment of algal biofuels: Influence of feedstock cultivation systems and conversion platforms
Robert M. Handler, David R. Shonnard, Tom N. Kalnes, F. Stephen Lupton, Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264

January 2014

2014 Joint Aquatic Sciences Meeting May 18-23, 2014
Abstract submission deadline is Friday, February 7. Please contact JASM 2014 Project Manager, Lynda West (, if you have any questions about the meeting.

Great Lakes Drinking Water Fouled by Toxic Algae
Case in point: Algae is overtaking Lake Erie. In 2011, the largest harmful algal bloom ever recorded on the lake could be seen from space in swirls of ...

Redfern helps protect Lake Erie
The project will consist of field studies and lab experiments carried out by four Ohio universities partnering with the Lake Erie Commission to pinpoint the origins of harmful algal blooms and to calculate the impact of nutrient loads on phosphate levels in the Western Basin of Lake Erie. Scientists will use data collected from the study in making recommendations to reduce the presence of harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie.

New USGS study helps determine causes of toxic algal blooms in Texas water bodies
Study suggest that climate change could influence future bloom events. bill that includes $300 million for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative for 2014, up from $285 million in 2013.

Great Lakes funding restored
Bill to funds programs to clean up the Great Lakes, including Lake Erie, featuring efforts to reduce storm runoff that feeds harmful algal blooms; clean up pollution; restore habitat for fish and wildlife; and keep invasive species out.

Blooms Bite the Hand That Feeds Them
Publication: A positive feedback exists between eutrophication and the global proliferation of toxin-producing cyanobacterial blooms.