Region 8

Columbia Falls Aluminum Reduction Plant

Columbia Falls Aluminum Reduction Plant site location map

Site Type: Site Reassessment
Street Address: 2000 Aluminum Drive
City: Columbia Falls
County: Flathead
ZIP Code: 59912
EPA ID: MTD057561763
SSID: A882
Site Aliases: Anaconda Aluminum Co Col Fls Red Plt
Congressional District: At large

What's New?

Updated December 2014

DEQ, EPA to update public on cleanup process for the Columbia Falls Aluminum Company Plant

The Montana Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), in coordination with EPA, will hold a meeting on December 11, 2014, to inform the public on the current status and next steps in addressing contamination at the Columbia Falls Aluminum Company (CFAC) plant in Columbia Falls, Montana. The public meeting will be held from 6 to 8 p.m. on Thursday, December 11, 2014, at the Little Theater at Columbia Falls High School, located at 610 13th Street West in Columbia Falls. Meeting topics will include a summary of recent discussions with CFAC/Glencore regarding the Administrative Order on Consent prepared by DEQ, an update from EPA on additional sampling efforts and the next steps in the cleanup process.

For more information regarding the CFAC site, please contact Rob Parker (, EPA Site Assessment Manager, at 303-312-6664, or Jenny Chambers (, DEQ Remediation Division Administrator, at 406-841-5001.

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Potential Site Risk

Media Affected Contaminants Source of Contamination
Percolation Ponds (pond water and sediment) fluoride; semi-volatile organic compounds; metals, including aluminum, cyanide, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, vanadium, zinc; pesticides; Arochlor-1254 aerial deposition; ponds received process fluids that have since (partially) evaporated or percolated
Groundwater on-site down-gradient of source areas metals, including arsenic, cyanide, chromium, lead, iron nickel, selenium, vanadium; fluoride; nitrate/nitrite leaching from landfills and sludge pond complex, percolation ponds, and potentially other unknown sources
Cedar Creek and Flathead River metals, including copper, cyanide, manganese; fluoride groundwater infiltration; groundwater seeps

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Investigation Results

A site reassessment was completed for the Columbia Falls Aluminum Reduction Plant site in April 2014. Results from that report are summarized here. The full report for this investigation is available in Site Documents below. The assessment and report is organized such that potential sources are evaluated to determine potential contaminants and then compared to analytical results for potential receptors, including surface water features and groundwater down gradient of the source areas.

Landfill Sources – Samples were not directly collected from landfills at the site in order to prevent compromising the integrity of the covers. In lieu of direct sampling, EPA sampled monitoring wells previously installed in locations down-gradient of the landfill and sludge pond sources. EPA compared the down-gradient sample results to up-gradient, background concentrations in order to determine if contaminants are significantly elevated compared to background conditions. For the purposes of this investigation, an observed release is documented if the down-gradient concentration for a particular contaminant is at least three times the background concentration.

The following is a list of contaminants that have met the observed release criteria, which document an elevated contaminant concentration above background conditions: metals, such as aluminum, arsenic, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, nickel, selenium and vanadium, among others; fluoride; and nitrate/nitrite as N.

Percolation Pond Sources – Waste sediment and surface water samples were collected from two percolation ponds for a common hazardous constituent analysis to determine contaminants present in the ponds at the site. The following is a list of contaminants determined to be present in percolation pond sources: semi-volatile organic compounds, such as anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, among others; metals, including aluminum, arsenic, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, nickel, sodium, vanadium and zinc, among others; pesticides; and fluoride.

Groundwater Migration Pathway – As discussed previously, landfill sources were indirectly evaluated by comparing down-gradient groundwater samples to up-gradient, background groundwater samples. This evaluation confirms that contaminants discussed previously have been released to groundwater at the site. Five residential wells were evaluated to determine if groundwater near the facility has been impacted. Cyanide was detected in one well southwest of the facility and another well to the north of the facility. The detections of cyanide were below EPA’s Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) and the State of Montana’s Numeric Water Quality Standards. When compared to EPA’s Risk Based Screening Levels, however, the concentrations of cyanide in both water samples were higher than the EPA Tapwater Risk Based Screening Level. The screening concentration is a conservative value that EPA considers to be protective for humans over a lifetime. Exceeding these values does not necessarily indicate that a health affect will occur, but that a more detailed assessment may be warranted. No other contaminants were detected above the regulatory or risk-based screening levels.

Surface Water Migration Pathway – Surface water and sediments from the Flathead River and Cedar Creek were collected for a common hazardous constituent analysis. Similar to the groundwater analysis, downstream samples were compared to background samples to determine if there is an observed release of any contaminants. In Cedar Creek, there were observed releases of copper, cyanide and potassium. In Flathead River, there were observed releases of cyanide, manganese, sodium, zinc and fluoride.

This stretch of the Flathead River is believed to be used by anglers. Fish tissue samples were not collected as part of the site reassessment. With the limited amount of data captured as part of this sampling event, it is unknown if bioaccumulation of these contaminants is a concern.

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Site Documents

Columbia Falls Site Reassessment Report, April 4, 2014

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Robert Parker
Site Assessment Manager
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8
1595 Wynkoop Street (EPR-B)
Denver, CO 80202-1129
800-227-8917 ext. 312-6664 (toll free Region 8 only)

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Montana Department of Environmental Quality Exit

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