Region 8

State Solid Waste Program Assistance

The following resources are provided specifically for Region 8 state environmental agencies to support program development and assist in the evaluation process for beneficial use determinations (BUDs). It streamlines searches for specific information on industrial materials recycling.

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What are the Regulations for Beneficial Use in Other States?

EPA’s Industrial Materials Recycling Web page has links to other states’ beneficial use regulations and programs.

The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality document Beneficial Use Programs in Other States (PDF) (11 pp, 73 K) summarizes information on beneficial use programs that were adopted by other states, such as Washington, Wisconsin, Minnesota, New York, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania.

The State Beneficial Use Program Locator is hosted by the Environmental Compliance Assistance Platform (EnvCAP) to provide information about beneficial use programs across the U.S.

The University of North Dakota's Energy & Environmental Research Center assembled this the Summary of CCP Regulations and Specifications of Four EPA Region 8 States: Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming (March 2011) report on current regulations, standards, and practices related to the use of fly ash for soil stabilization applications in four EPA Region 8 states as part of an EPA grant.

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What are the Tools for Developing a State Beneficial Use Program?

The EPA SectorStrategies program developed the State Toolkit for Developing Beneficial Reuse Programs for Foundry Sand (PDF) (64 pp, 4.6 MB) to address state program barriers and provide guidance for the development of beneficial use programs regardless of material type.

Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association (NEWMOA) Beneficial Use Determination (BUD) database provides a searchable database of all BUDs that have been issued by the northeast states, as well as other states. Contact Jennifer Griffith ( to access the database.

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What are some Risks and Concerns with Industrial Materials?

Characterization of Mercury-Enriched Coal Combustion Residues from Electric Utilities Using Enhanced Sorbents for Mercury Control (PDF). This EPA report evaluates changes that may occur to coal-fired power plant air pollution control residues from the use of activated carbon and other enhanced sorbents for reducing air emissions for mercury, and evaluates the potential for captured pollutants to leach during their disposal or use.

Characterization of Coal Combustion Residues from Electric Utilities Using Wet Scrubbers for Multi-Pollutant Control. This EPA report evaluated leaching characteristics of air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants that use acid gas scrubbers.

Human and Ecological Risk Assessment of Coal Combustion Wastes (PDF) (409 pp, 6.4 MB). This 2010 document is a draft prepared for the EPA about the different risks of coal combustion products (CCPs). It provides different exposure pathways and multiple charts with results that show a variety of data.

Evaluation of Water Quality Conditions Associated with the Use of Coal Combustion Products for Highway Embankments (PDF) (10 pp, 431 K). This is a case study from the Maryland Department of Natural Resources Power Plant Research Program (PPRP).

Radioactive Elements in Coal and Fly Ash. U.S. Geological Survey fact sheet. This page provides only a section of the fact sheet, but there is also a link to download the entire fact sheet.

Radon Emissions from a High Volume Coal Fly Ash Structural Fill Site (PDF) (14 pp, 146 K). From the 2001 International Ash Utilization Symposium held October 22-24, 2001 in Lexington, Kentucky.

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Coal Combustion By-Products. A topical report by Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC), published by the University of North Dakota (UND) Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). To receive a copy of the document, contact Mary Hoffart  (

Evaluating the Thermal Stability of Mercury and Other Metals in Coal Combustion Residues Used in the Production of Cement Clinker, Asphalt, and Wallboard (PDF) (85 pp, 1 MB). This December 2009 EPA report focuses on the potential for an increase in the volatilization of mercury and other metals from the use of coal combustion residues in the production of cement clinker, asphalt and wallboard.

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What is EPA Doing to Address Public Concerns Over the Use of Tire Crumb Materials in Turf Fields and Playgrounds?

A Scoping-Level Field Monitoring Study of Synthetic Turf Fields and Playgrounds, U.S. EPA, 2009. This limited-scale scoping study tests a study protocol and monitoring methods for generating environmental data associated with the use of recycled tire materials on artificial turf fields and playgrounds.

What are some Testing Methods and Analytical Protocols for Industrial Materials?

EPA Leach Testing of Coal Combustion Residues. In response to EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) concerns, EPA began considering alternatives to TCLP and what attributes should be investigated.

Improved Leach Testing for Evaluating Fate of Mercury and Other Metals from Management of Coal Combustion Residues, is from the proceedings of the Global Waste Management Symposium, Promoting Technology and Scientific Innovation held September 7-10, 2008 in Copper Mountain, Colorado.

Frontier GeoSciences, Inc. Fly Ash Study. Frontier GeoSciences, Inc. has teamed up with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop methods for assessing coal combustion products (CCPs). This website captures a variety of traditional testing methods that are available for CCPs, such as TCLP, SPLP and ASTM 03987, in addition to other tests that have been developed to mimic specific end uses in order to better understand the potential mobility of mercury and other trace metals from CCPs in the environment.

EPA’s Guide for Industrial Waste Management. Chapter 9: Monitoring Performance. This guide provides recommendations and tools to better address the management of land-disposed, non-hazardous industrial wastes.

What are the Performance Standard Specifications and Guidelines for Industrial Materials?

EPA Region 8 has assembled Performance Standard Specifications and Guidelines for Industrial Materials.

The Federal Highway Administration provides a National Highway Specifications and Supplements Library of up-to-date state standard specifications and supplements in Adobe Acrobat format.

The University of North Dakota's Energy & Environmental Research Center assembled this the Summary of CCP Regulations and Specifications of Four EPA Region 8 States: Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming (March 2011) report on current regulations, standards, and practices related to the use of fly ash for soil stabilization applications in four EPA Region 8 states as part of an EPA grant.

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How can some Industrial Materials be Used?

Using Industrial Materials in Buildings (PDF) (4 pp, 533 K). This October 2008 EPA information fact sheet discusses the use of recycled industrial materials in buildings as an alternative to virgin materials and building products.

Using Recycled Industrial Materials in Roadways (PDF) (4 pp, 1.1 MB). This July 2009 EPA information fact sheet discusses the use of industrial materials in roadways and other infrastructure projects as an alternative to virgin materials and construction products.

User Guidelines for Byproducts and Secondary Use Materials in Pavement Construction. This Recycled Materials Resource Center (RMRC) guideline covers the use of byproduct materials in six major highway construction applications: Asphalt Concrete, Portland Cement Concrete, Granular Base, Embankment or Fill, Stabilized Base and Flowable Fill.

Integrated Materials and Construction Practices for Concrete Pavement: A State-of-the-Practice Manual (PDF) (355 pp, 18.4 MB). This is a training tool and reference guide to optimize the performance of pavements and help bridge the gap between research and practice.

A Study of the Use of Recycled Paving Material (PDF) (78 pp, 3.2 MB). This Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and EPA report summarizes information about the use of scrap tire rubber and other recycled materials in asphalt pavements, documents economic savings, technical performances, threats to human health and the environment, and the environmental benefits of using the recycled material in highway projects.

Crumb Rubber Modifier (CRM) in Asphalt Pavement (PDF) (120 pp, 47 MB). This document addresses issues including thickness design, materials and mix design, construction procedure, quality control and pavement performance.

Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association (NEWMOA) publications provide information on selected waste/use combinations, including a description of the use, concerns, standards and specifications, applications, case studies and regulatory status for the northeast states.

Agricultural Uses for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum. This March 2008 EPA brochure discusses the use of FGD gypsum in agricultural applications.

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How to Find Industrial Material Suppliers and End-Users Near You

EPA’s industrial material recycling page provides links to suppliers of industrial materials, construction and demolition recyclers, and tools to locate potential end-users. Search for a recycling center for any type of material near any location.

Recycler’s World. Trade, buy or sell scrap and waste materials.

Materials and Waste Exchanges. Buy and sell reusable and recyclable commodities.

What are some Case Studies from Region 8?


I-70 through Colorado’s Glenwood Canyon: A Series of Bridges and of Series a Challenges Solved with Steel Slag (PDF) (2 pp, 85 K)

High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Colorado’s Ocean Journey (PDF) (1 pg, 90 K)

Recycled Materials Company, Inc. recycled asphalt and concrete from the former Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado for a variety of Colorado road projects.

Asphalt Shingle Recycling - Roofs to Roads Project promotes asphalt shingle recycling and appropriate reuse.


Missoula Federal Credit Union Project Uses Concrete Mix with 100 Percent Fly Ash (PDF) (56 pp, 4 MB)

North Dakota

Lewis and Clark Visitor Service Center, North Dakota (PDF) (1 pg, 106 K). The new visitor services center at Fort Mandan stands as a showcase for the reuse and recycling of coal combustion products.

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News Brief: "Industrial Materials Recycling Resources for Region 8 State RCRA Programs"

Issue No. 1: April 7, 2009 (PDF) (4 pp, 147 K)

Issue No. 2: September 11, 2009 (PDF) (5 pp, 1 MB)

Issue No. 3: August 23, 2010 (PDF) (5 pp, 1.3 MB)

Are there any Training Opportunities?

The Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials (ASTSWMO) sponsors solid waste program managers conferences every other year.

The Construction Materials Recycling Association (CMRA) sponsors the Asphalt Shingle Recycling Forum every other year.

American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) provides an event listing for conferences, trainings and meetings about Coal Combustion Products.

The National Center for Pavement Preservation provides training, conferences, workshops and webinars that are designed for representatives of government agencies, contractors, suppliers, consultants, academics and others.

The Building Materials Reuse Association (BMRA) offers half or full day training sessions that provide knowledge about deconstruction and building materials salvage projects, along with links to additional training resources across the country.

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Center for By-Products Utilization has been conducting educational programs, including workshops, symposiums and professional seminars since 1990. These programs mostly cover the recycling of post-consumer wastes and utilization of various industrial byproducts in concrete and concrete materials, including fly ash and other coal combustion byproducts, spent foundry sand and slag, scrap tires, plastics, glass, paper mill sludge, etc.

National Highway Institute. Browse the catalog for a variety of training sessions offered throughout the United States.

Federal Highway Administration. Various specialty transportation areas have provided webinars, workshops, briefings and seminars.

ASTM International provides one to three day training seminars about ASTM standards that are practical to industry.

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