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2011 TRI National Analysis: Indian Country and Alaska Native Villages
Quick Facts for 2011
|Number of TRI Facilities:||46|
|Total On-site and Off-site Disposal
or Other Releases:
|10.8 million lbs|
|Total On-site:||10.7 million lbs|
|• Air:||1.1 million lbs|
|• Water:||4 thousand lbs|
|• Land:||9.6 million lbs|
|• Underground Injection:||5 lbs|
|Total Off-site:||60 thousand lbs|
Congress has delegated authority to EPA to ensure that environmental programs designed to protect human health and the environment are carried out throughout the United States, including on tribal lands. EPA's policy is to work with tribes on a government-to-government basis to protect the land, air and water in Indian country and to support tribal assumption of program authority.
Presented here is an analysis of 2011 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data relating to federally-recognized tribes in the lower 48 states and Alaska Native Villages as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau's Alaska Native Village Statistical Areas (ANVSA).
According to EPA data, there were 46 TRI facilities located on lands of 19 federally-recognized Indian tribes in 2011. Total disposal or other releases from these facilities was 10.8 million pounds. Two electric utilities located on the Navajo Nation Reservation accounted for more than half of the total disposal or other releases on Indian country and Alaskan Native villages. On-site land disposal accounted for 89% of total disposal or other releases. The two electric utilities on the Navajo Nation Reservation and one metal mine on the Tohono O'odham Nation of Arizona accounted for 78% of the on-site land disposal. One paper facility located on the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe's (Fond du Lac) land reported one-third (33%) of all air releases from facilities located on lands of federally-recognized Indian tribes.
Total on-site disposal or other releases from facilities located on the lands of federally-recognized Indian tribes increased by 2% from 2010 to 2011 and by 13% overall from 2003 to 2011. Air releases decreased by 10% from 2003 to 2011, but increased by 6% from 2010 to 2011. On-site land disposal by these TRI facilities located on federally recognized Indian tribes increased by 16% from 2003 to 2011, including an increase of 2% from 2010 to 2011.
The following table lists the 19 Indian tribes and Alaska Native Villages that had one or more TRI facilities reporting for 2011, more than half of which had just one facility. The Puyallup Reservation in Washington State had the most facilities with a total of 13. Facilities located on the Navajo Nation Reservation, covering land in Arizona, New Mexico and Utah, reported the largest total disposal or other releases. The table shows which industry sector and which chemicals accounted for the majority of disposal or other releases in each area. Click on the number of facilities for each tribe for more information about those facilities including chemicals released, quantities released, parent company, and facility contacts.
|Indian Tribes and Alaska Native Villages||State(s)||Number of Facilities||Total On-site and
Off-site Disposal or
Other Releases (lbs)
Sector (% of disposal or other releases)
(% of disposal or
|Navajo Nation Reservation||Arizona, New Mexico and Utah||2||5,847,449||Electric Utilities (100%)||Barium and its compounds (65%)|
|Tohono O'odham Nation||Arizona||1||1,921,558||Metal Mining (100%)||Lead and its compounds (65%)|
|Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation||Utah||1||1,703,707||Electric Utilities (100%)||Barium and its compounds (84%)|
|Minnesota Chippewa Tribe (Fond du Lac Band)||Minnesota||1||579,717||Paper (100%)||Manganese and its compounds/Ammonia/Methanol (77%)|
|Minnesota Chippewa Tribe (Grand Portage Band)||Minnesota||1||240,272||Electric Utilities (100%)||Barium and its compounds (98%)|
|Puyallup Tribe of the Puyallup Reservation||Washington||13||210,165||Petroleum/Hazardous Waste Management (85%)||Ammonia/Copper and its compounds (56%)|
|Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation||Washington||3||134,310||Plastics and Rubber (100%)||Styrene (100%)|
|Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate of the Lake Traverse Reservation||South Dakota||2||70,781||Furniture (98%)||Xylene/Toluene (76%)|
|Coeur D'Alene Tribe of the Coeur D'Alene Reservation||Idaho||2||26,979||Wood Products (100%)||Methanol (98%)|
|Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation||Wyoming||1||7,651||Chemicals (100%)||Sulfuric acid (100%)|
|Rincon Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of the Rincon Reservation||California||1||6,239||Transportation Equipment (100%)||Styrene (100%)|
|Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe||Michigan||1||1,335||Machinery (100%)||Chromium/Nickel and their compounds (91%)|
|Tulalip Tribes of the Tulalip Reservation||Washington||1||1,030||Primary Metals (100%)||Chromium/Nickel and their compounds (100%)|
|Oneida Tribe of Indians||Wisconsin||3||1,025||Chemicals/Machinery (99.99%)||Methanol/Chromium and Nickel and their compounds (98%)|
|Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation||Arizona||8||274||Primary Metals (99.96%)||Copper and its compounds (99.9%)|
|Colorado River Indian Tribes of the Colorado River Indian Reservation||Arizona and
|1||10||Hazardous Waste Management (100%)||Benzene (100%)|
|Nez Perce Tribe||Idaho||1||7||Wood Products (100%)||Lead and its compounds (100%)|
|Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of the Salt River Reservation||Arizona||2||1||Petroleum (99%)||Polycyclic aromatic compounds (100%)|
|Minnesota Chippewa Tribe (Mille Lacs Band)||Minnesota||1||0||Computers/Electronic Products (100%)||Lead and its compounds (100%)|
In 2011, for the 46 TRI facilities located on the lands of federally-recognized Indian tribes, ammonia was released to air in the largest amount, primarily from one paper facility and one petroleum refinery. Barium and its compounds were released to water in the largest amounts, from one electric utility. Barium and its compounds were also disposed of in on-site landfills and other land disposal sites in the largest amounts, primarily from four electric utilities.
Although there are 46 TRI facilities on the lands of federally-recognized Indian tribes, there are 1676 facilities on or within a 10 mile buffer of these lands. For more information about facilities on or near Indian country and ANVSAs, use TRI Explorer's facility report and choose "On or Near All Tribal Land" or "On or Near Selected Tribal Land" in the Geographic Location drop down menu to generate a report.
Top Five Chemicals by Environmental Medium Indian Country and Alaska Native Villages, 2011
To conduct your own analysis of TRI data associated with Indian country and ANVs, use TRI Explorer or TRI.NET. These boundary data are NOT for engineering work, and they are not used to legally define tribal boundaries. Census boundaries for tribes in the lower 48 states are available from the U.S. Census Bureau. Alaska Native Villages areas were selected and centroids were calculated to provide estimates of the center of each village area based upon data provided by the BLM Alaska State Office.